Azzedine Bellel (University of Constantine 1, Algeria), Omar Lezzar (Faculté des Sciences de la Technologie, Université Constantine 1, Algeria), Meriem Boutamine (Faculté des Sciences de la Technologie, Université Constantine 1, Algeria)
, Salah Sahli (Laboratoire de Microsystèmes et Instrumentation (LMI), Algeria), Patrice Raynaud (Laboratoire Plasma et Conversion de L'Energie, Université Paul Sabatier, France) and Yvan Segui (Laboratoire Plasma et Conversion de L'Energie, Université Paul Sabatier, Algeria)
Discrimination and quantification of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using non-selective sensor requires a combination of sensors followed by pattern recognition methods. Based on this concept, this paper deals with the discrimination of gas from the responses of several gas sensors coated with different type of polymer. Quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) electrodes were coated from hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO), hexamethyldisilazane (HMDSN) and tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) for the elaboration of gas sensors with different chemical affinity towards VOC molecules. The sensitivity of the elaborated QCM-based sensors was evaluated by monitoring the frequency shifts of the quartz exposed to different concentrations of volatile organic compounds, such as; ethanol, benzene and chloroform. The sensors responses data have been used for the identification and quantification of VOCs. The principal component analysis (PCA) and the neural-network (NNs) pattern recognition analysis were used for the discrimination of gas species and concentrations. Good separation among gases has been obtained using the principal component analysis. The feed-forward multi-layer neural network (MLNNs) with a hidden layer and trained by BFGS Quasi Newton algorithm has been implemented in order to identify and quantify the VOCs. By increasing the number of the neuron in the hidden layer, the precision of the estimate concentration increases.
Kok Seng Eu (Sunway University, Malaysia) and Kian Meng Yap (Sunway University, Malaysia)
Gas leaking in gas production industry is a serious issue which could cause explosion or pose a high risk to human life. The searching of leaking gas can be performed by robots. It is better than using human beings because searching of leaking gas is a high risk task. Most of the gas sensors used in industries is semiconductor metal-oxide (MOX) type due to its low cost, ease of use, high sensitivity and fast response time in gas sensing, and ability to detect large number of gases. However, there is a fatal limitation i. e. long recovery time after the exposure of the target gas. It definitely causes robots to fail in gas/odour plume searching tasks due to delay of responses in detecting the absent of gas plume. This paper proposes a sensing algorithm based on evidential theory which is using certainty factors and evidential reasoning to overcome the long recovery problem. Based on the conducted experiments, the proposed algorithm has improved the accuracy and reliability while maintaining its performance in recovery time. It performs better than other algorithms such as simple threshold methods, transient response algorithm and system modelling approach.
Janusz Smulko (Gdansk University of Technology, Poland), Maciej Trawka (Gdansk University of Technology, Poland), Claes Granqvist (The Angstrom Laboratory, Uppsala University, Sweden), Laszlo Kish (Texas A&M University, USA), Radu Ionescu (Universita Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria, Italy), Fatima Annanouch (Rovira i Virgily University Tarragona, Poland) and Eduard Llobet (Rovira i Virgily University Tarragona, Spain)
Resistive gas sensors are very popular and reliable but suffer from low selectivity and sensitivity. Various methods have been suggested to improve both features without increasing the number of sensors in gas detection systems. Fluctuation enhanced gas sensing was proposed to improve gas detection efficiency by analyzing low-frequency resistance fluctuations, and noise parameters can be more informative than the single DC resistance and can advance gas detection systems by improving detection and limiting energy consumption. Gas sensor temperature can be modulated as well to further increase selectivity and sensitivity. Finally, some gas sensing layers exhibit a photo-catalytic effect, which can be applied to improve detection and yield lower operating temperatures of the gas sensing materials.
Anthony Maher (BorgWarner Tralee Ltd., Ireland), Vijayalakshmi Velusamy (Institute of Technology Tralee, Ireland), Daniel Riordan (Institute of Technology, Tralee, Ireland) and Joseph Walsh (Institute of Technology, Tralee, Ireland)
Current research in the automotive industry sector focuses on the application of platinum thin film sensors for exhaust temperature measurement. The prime intention of this paper is to pioneer the design and development of Platinum/Rhodium (Pt/Rh) sensors for exhaust gas temperature measurement. The developed sensors were able to endure harsh temperature environments (up to 950º C). In addition, the Pt/Rh sensors resistivity response to temperature increase was described by a second order polynomial characteristic equation. This equation can be stored in the electronics incorporated in the engine management system. Therefore, the resistance reading of the Pt/Rh sensor in the exhaust system can be decoded as a temperature measurement.
Mónica Acuautla (Aix - Marseille University & CNRS, IM2NP, France), Sandrine Bernardini (Aix - Marseille University - CNRS, IM2NP, France), Laurent Gallais (Aix-Marseille Université, Institute Fresnel, France) and Marc Bendahan (Aix - Marseille University - CNRS, IM2NP, France)
We report the ammonia gas sensing properties of ZnO nanoparticles on flexible substrates. The flexible platform contains Ti/Pt interdigitated electrodes for gas detection and a micro heater device. The Ti/Pt film has been deposited by Magnetron Sputtering with thickness of 5nm and 100 nm respectively. The circuit patterning has been fabricated by standard photolithography and femtosecond laser ablation processes. ZnO thin film has been deposited by drop coating process with a thickness of 275 nm and the gas sensing properties towards ammonia have been studied. The physical properties obtained by both processes have been observed and theirs effects on the gas sensitivity have been discussed. Despite there are small variations in the physical characteristics between the samples fabricated by different patterning processes, both devices present high sensitivity and reproducibility to different ammonia concentrations from 5 ppm to 100 ppm at 300 °C.
Martin De Biasio (Carinthian Tech Research AG, Austria), Raimund Leitner (CTR AG, Austria) and Dirk Balthasar (TOMRA Sorting Solutions GmbH, Austria)
A real-time Raman mapping system for detecting and discriminating a range of industrially relevant materials such as glasses and various minerals is presented. The system is built from components that are suitable for industrial conditions. Together with a signal processing and a chemo-metric model, the system was shown to be capable of discriminating between the test materials. We argue that the approach is a novel alternative to established sorting sensors.
Multisensor time series data is common in many applications of process industry, medical and health care and biometrics. Analysis of multisensor time series data requires analysis of multidimensional time series(MTS) which is challenging as they constitute a huge volume of data of dynamic nature. Traditional machine learning algorithms for classification and clustering developed for static data can not be applied directly to MTS data. Various techniques have been developed to represent MTS data in a suitable manner for analysis by popular machine learning algorithms. Though a plethora of different approaches have been developed so far, 1NN classifier based on dynamic time warping (DTW) has been found to be the most popular due to its simplicity. In this work, an approach for time series classification is proposed based on multidimensional delay vector representation of time series. Multivariate time series is considered here as a group of single time series and each time series is processed separately to be represented by a multidimensional delay vector (MDV). A simple simulation experiment with online handwritten signature data has been done with a similarity measure based on the MDV representation and classification performance is compared with DTW based classifier. The simulation results show that classification accuracy of the proposed approach is satisfactory while computational cost is lower.
Madhurima Chattopadhyay (West Bengal University of Technology & Heritage Institute of Technology, India) and Deborshi Chakraborty (Jadavpur University, India)
Patients suffering from the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) requires thoracic electrical impedance tomography (EIT) for the monitoring their conditions ranging from dynamic shifting of body fluids to lung aeration right at the bedside. More objectively, EIT-derived numeric parameters would help the physician to evaluate the state of the lung. Thus, here we have performed a Finite Element Method based simulation study for monitoring the condition of lungs and heart of ARDS patients. Therefore, a finite element method (FEM)-model of a human thorax in 3 dimensional platform of FEM Multiphysics software is created and is tested with new ventilation indices regarding their ability to quantitatively describe structural changes in the lung due to the gravitationally dependent lung collapse. Additionally, analysis is made to find the electrode pairs capable of separating the lung and heart activity when a particular amount of constant current is injected through them are also carried out.
Joyanta Kumar Roy (MCKV Institute of Engineering, India) and Bansari Deb Majumder (Narula Institute of Technology, India)
An attempt has been made to study theoretically electrical admittance type level measurement and its cross sensitivity with ionic concentration of liquid. The analysis has been made for single and double electrodes and found there is significant cross sensitivity which varies with the ionic concentration of the liquid. This study will help further to design and develop continuous level measurement transmitter in Boiler drum.
Traditional heavyweight routing algorithms are not suitable for resource constrained IEEE 802.15.4  complaint devices. Although, ZigBee  provided an addressing scheme and a table-free Tree routing algorithm for such devices, it has several limitations [6, 7, 8, 9]. In this paper, we have proposed a flexible, variable-length addressing scheme together with a new lightweight, table-free routing algorithm. The addressing scheme leverages the properties of prefix code and allows devices to have arbitrary number of children and does not also limit network depth. The routing algorithm uses simple mathematical and/or logical calculations to take routing decisions. Simulation and analytical results show that this flexible mechanism exhibits very low overhead and can be used for virtually all types of network topologies.
Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) consist of large number of tiny sensor nodes, all of which have sensing capabilities. As sensor nodes are typically powered by nonrenewable batteries, energy efficiency is a critical factor in wireless sensor networks. Sensor nodes want to continue their lives with limited energy. Each of them using its own energy in minumum level and they aims to provide maximum efficiency to network. In this paper; We show that optimum packet length over data transmission at the data link layer. An example scenario is developed in OMNet simulation platform using IEEE standard 802.15.4. The optimal packet length is obtained in terms of energy efficiency.
Joana Faria (University of Coimbra, Portugal), Sónia Semedo (University of Coimbra, Portugal), Francisco Cardoso (University of Coimbra, Portugal) and José Oliveira (Eneida Wireless & Sensors, S.A., Coimbra, Portugal)
An autonomous, wireless and self-powered smart sensor is described, addressing the condition monitoring and diagnosis of steam traps, whose performance degradation impairs energy efficiency in most of the process industries. The diagnostic criteria in the two possible failure modes of steam traps are presented, as well as the structure and technologies of the embedded devices for sensing, communication, and power supply, special attention being paid to the capability to run the system on the thermoelectric energy gathered from local pipes. Also, a platform supporting the integration of 'field' devices in large numbers is presented, which may address the data requirements in the scope of Asset Management.
Ralph Stevenson-Jones (University of Manchester, United Kingdom), Med Benyezzar (The University of Manchester, United Kingdom) and Patricia J Scully (The University of Manchester, United Kingdom)
In many outdoor locations solar power provides the greatest power densities for energy harvesting to power wireless sensor networks in comparison to other practical alternative such as wind, vibrations or temperature gradients. Since solar power is highly variable with location and time, it is necessary to optimise the sensor nodes for individual locations. Presented here, is an assessment of the solar power availability in Manchester, UK (53°28'N, 2°14'W). Wireless sensor nodes are typically low power devices with intended perpetual operation and thus the temporal distribution of available power is important together with the total amount of energy drawn over a given time period. Here we examine direct and diffuse solar radiation data over a period of three years and present methods for the deployment of solar cells for sensor nodes to optimise sensing and communication scenarios. As local weather conditions are highly variable and stochastic in the medium term, we base the future node performance on the weather from a previous year. From analysis of the weather data, the hardware requirements for the sensor node are then made from the power consumption of the sensor node for sensing, sleep and data transmission. It was found that to maximise the time over which the solar irradiance exceeds that required to power our demonstration sensor node, the solar cell should be positioned horizontally.
Sushma Nandhyala (Northern Illinois University, USA), Michael J. Haji-Sheikh (Northern Illinois University, USA), Martin Kocanda (Northern Illinois University, USA) and Suma Rajashankar (Northern Illinois University, USA)
Zinc oxide (ZnO), II-VI compound semiconductor with a wide band gap (3.4ev), has a stable wurtzite structure with lattice spacing a=0.325 nm and c=0.521nm. Its properties and potential for applications in photovoltaics, LED's, spin electronics, ultraviolet light emitters, chemical sensors and transparent electronics has attracted intensive research. The objective of this thesis is to fabricate ZnO nanowires on gold coated silicon substrates using the chemical vapor transport (CVT) method. Under a constant flow of Argon gas (200mL/min), the substrates along with a mixture of ZnO and graphite powder are placed in a modified horizontal furnace which uses a 2.54 cm internally mounted quartz tube and are exposed to high temperature (527°C-1000°C) for different growth times. This reaction causes the formation of ZnO nanowires on the substrates. scanning electron microscopy is used to measure the size of the nanowires.
Matthew McAuley (Queen's University Belfast, United Kingdom), Antony Murphy (Queen's University Belfast, United Kingdom) and Robert Pollard (Queen's University Belfast, United Kingdom)
Arrays of freestanding upright palladium nanotubes have been fabricated using a bottom-up method of electro-depositing into anodised alumina pores. Optical transmission measurements carried out with a range of post-fabrication treatment methods suggest that hydrogen diffuses into both the inner and outer surface areas of the tube structure. Furthermore, the sensing performance of the structures is characterised with comparison to a thin film of palladium.
Pavel Shuk (Emerson, USA) and Robert Jantz (Rosemount Analytical Inc., USA)
NEMCA known for the increasing the catalytic activity/selectivity of the gas exposed electrodes was investigated for the potentiometric zirconia oxygen sensor activation. Electrochemical promotion of O2-sensors with Pt-cermet electrodes aged in the field was significant with up to 5 times in the impedance reduction. Stability test on the NEMCA activated O2-sensors was showing just a minor impedance increase. Sensor response time was reduced by NEMCA effect by ~5-10% with up to 3 times signal noise reduction on the aged O2-sensors.
Veronica Sberveglieri (University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Italy), Estefania Nunez Carmona (University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Italy), Elisabetta Comini (University of Brescia, Italy) and Andrea Pulvirenti (University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Italy)
The coffee aroma is one of the most important quality evaluation criteria employed for coffee commercialization and consumption . The purpose of this study was following the roasting process VOCs creations with the novel Electronic Nose equipped whit 2 of 6 MOX nanowire sensors. The nanowires exhibit exceptional crystalline quality and a very high length-to-width ratio, resulting in enhanced sensing capability as well as long-term material stability for prolonged operation . Four different methods of roasting, made by ROSTAMATIC (Table 1) machine, were applied to gain a clearer picture of the differences in roasted coffee aromas by means of a volatile compound analysis. Different methods applied on four different origins of green coffee (India, Indonesia, Honduras, Santos and Nicaragua). The commercial coffees products are made from a blending from minimum five different kinds of coffee and the consumers have developed an addiction/expectation to a specific flavor and taste. Different methods of roasting process will provide the coffee different aroma that will add flexibility to those one that already posses the matrix due to different origins . This work tests and illustrates the broad spectrum of potential uses of the EN technique in food quality control.
Kazuhiko Takahashi (Doshisha University, Japan), Naoki Nishiwaki (Doshisha University, Japan) and Iwao Sugimoto (Tokyo University of Technology, Japan)
This paper proposes a computational model of the mass-sensitive chemical sensor with plasma-organic-polymer-film-coated quartz crystal resonators for use in sensor signal processing to develop a high-performance electronic nose system. Assuming one-dimensional Fickian diffusion of sample gas molecules, diffusion equation is applied to sample gas molecules in the sensor film bulk to describe the responses of the chemical sensor to the sample gas. Green's function is introduced to solve the diffusion equation, and the computational model of the chemical sensor response is derived. A computational experiment of the chemical sensor response is conducted to compare the sensor responses calculated by the proposed model with the experimental results obtained by the gas sensing system using water vapour as sample gas. The result shows the feasibility of the proposed model to estimate the responses of the chemical sensor.
Bhaskar Choubey (University of Oxford, United Kingdom) and Luiz Gouveia (University of Glasgow, United Kingdom)
CMOS Image Sensors have become the principal technology in majority of digital cameras. They started replacing the film and Charge Coupled Devices in the last decade with the promise of lower cost, lower power requirement, higher integration and the potential of focal plane processing. However, the principal factor behind their success has been the ability to utilise the shrinkage in CMOS technology to make smaller pixels, and thereby have more resolution without increasing the cost. With the market of image sensors exploding courtesy their integration with communication and computation devices, technology developers improved the CMOS processes to have better optical performance. Nevertheless, the promises of focal plane processing as well as on-chip integration have not been fulfilled. The market is still being pushed by the desire of having higher number of pixels and better image quality, however, differentiation is being difficult for any image sensor manufacturer. In the paper, we explore potential disruptive growth directions for CMOS Image sensors and ways to achieve the same.
Tom Hößler (Fraunhofer Institute for Transportation and Infrastructure Systems, Germany) and Tom Landgraf (Fraunhofer Institute for Transportation and Infrastructure Systems, Germany)
In this work an automated traffic analysis in aerial image sequences recorded by an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) has been developed, which provides the trajectories of the vehicles especially during overtaking. Methods of photogrammetry and image processing are used to detect the vehicles and to determine and track their positions. Camera calibration is necessary in order to transform image coordinates into world coordinates.
Thomas Arnold (Carinthian Tech Research AG & University of Klagenfurt, Austria), Martin De Biasio (Carinthian Tech Research AG, Austria), Andreas Fritz (Carinthian Tech Research AG, Austria) and Raimund Leitner (CTR AG, Austria)
The present work describes a laboratory terahertz (THz) imaging spectroscopy system and its possibilities to inspect solid dosage forms in the form of coated tablets and capsules. Moreover, the chemical composition and layer structure of coated pharmaceutical tablets are investigated. These chemical and physical properties of solid dosage forms can be used for the detection of counterfeit drugs. Preliminary results show that THz time domain spectroscopy and imaging is a promising technology for contactless control and analysis of pharmaceutical drug materials and final dosage forms.
In this paper, we present an algorithm for robot simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) using a Kinect sensor, which is a red-green-blue and depth (RGB-D) sensor. The distortions of the RGB and depth images are calibrated before the sensor is used as a measuring device for robot navigation. The calibration procedure includes the correction of the RGB image as well as alignment of the RGB lens with the depth lens. In SLAM tasks, the speeded-up robust features (SURFs) are detected from the RGB image and used as landmarks for building the environment map. The depth image further provides the stereo information to initialize the three-dimensional coordinates of each landmark. Meanwhile, the robot estimates its own state and landmark locations using the extended Kalman filter (EKF). Two SLAM experiments have been carried out in this study and the results showed that the Kinect sensors could provide reliable measurement information for mobile robots navigating in unknown environments.
John Jendzurski (National Institute of Standards and Technology & Security Technologies Group, USA), Nicholas Paulter, Jr. (National Institute of Standards and Technology, USA), Francine Amon (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Sweden), Alan C Bovik (University of Texas at Austin, USA) and Eddie L Jacobs (University of Memphis, USA)
Image quality is based on human interpretation. Although this may be adequate for consumer applications, it is not acceptable for security and safety applications where operator interpretation may lead to missing a threat or finding threats where they are not. Therefore, methods must be developed to ensure that the imagery used in security and safety applications are of sufficient quality to allow the operator to perform his job accurately and efficiently. NIST has developed a method to quantify the capability of imagers to provide images of sufficient quality to allow humans to perform specific perception-based tasks. This method requires one one-time human-perception based step that results in perception coefficients that subsequently multiply lab-measured objective image quality indicators (IQIs). To acquire these coefficients requires an appropriate set of images and number of human test subjects. This paper describes a method to assess the ability of a human test subject to provide reliable perception information.
Beenish Ayaz (University of Aberdeen, United Kingdom), Alastair Allen (University of Aberdeen, United Kingdom) and Marian Wiercigroch (University of Aberdeen, United Kingdom)
Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSN) share the common challenges of terrestrial Wireless Sensor Network (WSN), however they are significantly different from terrestrial WSN. Mainly, because acoustic wireless communication is the main physical layer technology in UWSN. Acoustic communication offers longer range, but has limitations due to low speed of sound, high error probability, limited bandwidth capacity, node mobility and 3-dimensional network architecture. Most of the ground based WSN are static, however the UWSN condition keeps on changing due to water current and channel impairment. Therefore the UWSN must be able to dynamically reconfigure itself. The sensor nodes must be able to re-route their communication if the network configuration changes. In this paper we address a fundamental Networking layer issue by developing a dynamically reconfigurable routing protocol. It is a multi-hop datagram routing scheme which will offer reliable underwater wireless communication by dynamically re-routing the data, when network configuration changes.
Baher Mawlawi (CEA - LETI, France), Jean-Baptiste Doré (CEA, France), Nikolai Lebedev (CPE Lyon / CITI Laboratory, University of Lyon, France) and Jean-Marie Gorce (INSA-Lyon, France)
In this work we study the collision probability, saturation throughput and statistical delay for the carrier sense multiple access collision avoidance (CSMA/CA) protocol with request to send and clear to send (RTS/CTS) mechanism in the case of frequency channel division. We propose in this paper a modified version of CSMA/CA-RTS/CTS to be compatible with the channel repartition technique and we prove that an important gain is introduced in terms of system performance especially for loaded networks. Simulations highlight that dividing the channel into independent sub-channels reduces drastically the RTS collision probability. Moreover, a gain in terms of saturation throughput and delay is shown especially in dense networks.
Richard Oliver (University of Southampton, United Kingdom), Adriana Wilde (University of Southampton, United Kingdom) and Ed Zaluska (University of Southampton, United Kingdom)
The dynamic re-programming of embedded systems is a long-standing problem in the field. With the advent of wireless sensor networks and the 'Internet of Things' it has now become necessary to be able to reprogram at run-time due to the difficulty of gaining access to such systems once deployed. The issues of power consumption, flexibility, and operating system protections are examined for a range of approaches, and a critical comparison is given. A combination of approaches is recommended for the implementation of real-world systems and areas where further work is required are highlighted.
Valerio Francesco Annese (Politecnico di Bari, Italy), Giuseppe Biccario (Politecnico di Bari, Italy), Silvia Cipriani (Politecnico di Bari, Italy) and Daniela De Venuto (Politecnico di Bari, Italy)
Nowadays, two of the most compelling challenges in the field of food safety and certification are the reduction of the multitude of food losses and wastes in the supply chain and the improvement of certification and monitoring procedures during each stage of production. The aim of this paper is to propose an effective solution to both problems: a wireless sensor network (WSN) combined with a further data processing for real-time monitoring and shelf life prediction.
Estefania Nunez Carmona (University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Italy), Veronica Sberveglieri (University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Italy), Andrea Ponzoni (University of Brescia, Italy), Dario Zappa (University of Brescia, Italy) and Andrea Pulvirenti (University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Italy)
It is well know that the lack of control and sanitation of water in developing countries has cause very important epidemiological events. In the last decades the situation of water supplies and sanitation has improve all over the world. Despite of it in the European Union there are a considerable number of confirmed cases of water-borne infections even though the restrictive law. Electronic Noses (ENs) has shown to be a very effective and fast tool for monitoring microbiological spoilage and quality control. The aim of this study was essay the ability of a novel EN for the detection of bacterial presence in potable water in cooperation with analytical (pH) and optical (photometer) techniques. The achieved results notably advocate the use of EN in industry laboratories like a very important tool in water quality control.
Ismini Nakouti (Liverpool John Moores University, United Kingdom), Olga Korostynska (Liverpool John Moores University, United Kingdom), Alex Mason (Liverpool John Moores University, United Kingdom) and Ahmed I Al-Shamma'a (Liverpool John Moores University, United Kingdom)
This paper reports on the capabilities of a novel electromagnetic wave sensing method to detect and identify the presence of various pathogenic bacteria in aqueous media. In particular, the change in the electromagnetic wave signal in microwave frequency range is used as an indicator of bacteria presence. The assessment was conducted by recording reflected signal spectra when the sensor was in contact with deionised water, Escherichia coli, sterile nutrient broth and Pseudomonas aeruginosa solutions. The distinct feature of the proposed system is that the detection is performed in real time, without the need for additional sample processing or chemicals. This bacteria detection method would be of benefit in a broad range of applications, ranging from water quality monitoring in wastewater treatment facilities to safety assurance in healthcare and food industry.
Tochukwu Kene Anyachebelu (University of Bedfordshire, Luton, United Kingdom), Marc Conrad (University of Bedfordshire, United Kingdom) and Tahmina Ajmal (University of Bedfordshire, United Kingdom)
Water contamination is a great disadvantage to humans and aquatic life. Maintaining the aesthetics and quality of water bodies is a priority to environmental stake holders. Water quality sensor data can be analyzed over a period of time to get an indication of pollution incidents. Here we show our initial finding from statistical analysis on such sensor data from one of the lakes of the river Lea, south of Luton. Our initial work shows patterns which will form the basis for the analysis of the noticed seasonal trends.
Eoin O'Connell (University of Limerick, Ireland), Sinead O'Keeffe (University of Limerick, Ireland), Elfed Lewis (University of Limerick, Ireland) and Damien Meere (University of Limerick, Ireland)
The system presented in this paper demonstrates how a fibre optic based sensing platform, capable of detecting minute changes in the level of impurity in a liquid, can be incorporated onto a Mote based platform enabling real time monitoring of a body of water. How these features can be used to detect a representative sample of chlorophyll within a aquatic environment, will be demonstrated. Systems currently deployed worldwide include satellite mapping technology and high cost water monitoring platforms. Growing international emphasis on the management of water quality is giving rise to an expansion of the international market for novel robust, miniaturized, intelligent water monitoring systems capable of measuring local environmentally detrimental events such as localised small scale chemical pollution.
Shin Horikawa (Auburn University, USA), Yating Chai (Auburn University, USA), Howard Wikle (Auburn University, USA) and Bryan Chin (Auburn University, USA)
This paper investigates phage-coated magnetoelastic (ME) biosentinels that capture and detect low-concentration pathogenic bacteria in stagnant liquid. These biosentinels are composed of a freestanding ME resonator platform coated with a landscape phage that specifically binds with the pathogens of interest. These biosentinels can be moved through a liquid by externally applied magnetic fields. When a time-varying magnetic field is applied, the ME biosentinels can be placed into mechanical resonance by magnetostriction. As soon as the biosentinels bind with the target pathogen through the phage-based biomolecular recognition, a change in the biosentinel's resonant frequency occurs, and thereby the presence of the target pathogen can be detected. Detection of Bacillus anthracis spores under stagnant flow conditions was demonstrated.
Daluwathu Preethichandra (Central Queensland University, Australia) and Mitsuyoshi Onoda (University of Hyogo, Australia)
This paper discuss about a novel technique of developing a nano-structured polypyrrole biosensor for measurement of very low concentrations of hydrogen peroxide in liquid media. The proposed fabrication method is very effective in growing a nano-structured conducting polymer layer on a planar conducting substrate. In addition enzyme loading was done under a high electric field of 1000V/m. The developed sensor provides a liner range of 0-200µM of hydrogen peroxide and a measurement sensitivity of 6.5Acm-1M-1.
Walter Messina (University College Cork, Ireland), Michelle Fitzgerald (University College Cork, Ireland), Una Crowley (University College Cork, Ireland) and Eric Moore (University College Cork, Ireland)
Gold nanopillars have been successfully fabricated on top of interdigitated gold electrodes deposited on a Pyrex substrate and these were used for cytotoxicity monitoring on immobilized cells through the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy technique. These nanopillars were fabricated via contact metal deposition. E-beam lithography was used to define the pattern of nanopillars with dimensions of 150nm diameter and 500nm of distance between their edges in a honeycomb-like structure. These dimensions together with a, relatively, low aspect ratio ( -50nm tall) have been chosen in the hope that cell adhesion will be promoted. Cell adhesion to these novel nanopillars is important as their ultimate use will be for cytotoxicity testing of cell cultures. This novel tool could potentially increase the sensitivity of this kind of analysis compared to its plain counterpart.
Jenny Sneddon (Liverpool John Moores University, United Kingdom) and Alex Mason (Liverpool John Moores University, United Kingdom)
Non-invasive methods for monitoring foraging choice in free ranging grazing animals are largely limited to accelerometers and video calibration. Acoustic data from a wireless microphone attached to the skull has been used to distinguish between resting and feeding bouts in free ranging cattle, sheep and goats. Similar data has been reported in restrained sheep presented with forage of differing dry matter content. We take these approaches further by using a small video camera attached to a halter in free range sheep, and software developed specifically for the analysis of animal sounds. Combined biting and mastication sounds allowed us to distinguish between foraged grasses and browsing activity, and non-foraging chewing activity in four sheep of differing body size and breed in the height of a UK summer for up to 8 hours.
Matthew Fok (Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm Service Liverpool Heart and Chest Hospital Liverpool, LJMU, United Kingdom), Mohamad Bashir (Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm Service Liverpool Heart and Chest Hospital Liverpool, United Kingdom), Fatemeh Jafarzadeh (Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm Service Liverpool Heart and Chest Hospital Liverpool, United Kingdom), Tom Kennedy (Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm Service Liverpool Heart and Chest Hospital Liverpool, United Kingdom), Mark Field (Liverpool Heart and Chest Hospital -NHS Foundation Trust, United Kingdom) and Alex Mason (Liverpool John Moores University, United Kingdom)
Without surgical repair thoracic aortic aneurysms are a lethal disease with poor prognosis. An extensive major operation is required to correct an aneurysm that involves the descending or thoracoabdominal aorta. Particular considerations must be made to protection of all abdominal organs, the brain and the spinal cord which are all at risk. Consequently there is a risk that these patients post operatively wake up paraplegic from spinal cord ischaemia due to the nature of the surgery. Certain techniques have evolved that have considerably reduced this risk. Neuromonitoring is a technique that can provide an intraoperative assessment of the integrity of the spinal cord through stimulation of nervous pathways and detection in either peripheral muscles or the brain cortex. In theory this can alert the surgical team to impending spinal cord ischaemia and change the management of this patient to prevent paraplegia. However, there is much ambiguity surrounding its use, with no conclusive evidence to prove this technique effectively reduces the rates of paraplegia. This literature review will assess the current methods of neuromonitoring in thoracoabdominal aneurysm repair.
Peter Kinnell (Nottingham University, United Kingdom)
Almost all modern sensors require a source of electrical power, as well as a dedicated data transmission systems, e.g. optical, electrical, or RF. In addition to this, the trend towards the development of smart sensors which include data processing and decision making capability, means there is often a requirement for additional electrical and computational power to be collocated with the sensing element. This work presents a new strategy for sensor design that aims to simplify as much as possible the sensor element, by making use of ubiquitous mobile devices for signal capture, digitization, and data processing. By moving these tasks to a device extrinsic to the transducer the systems ruggedness can be improved and the total cost decreased. To illustrate this concept, two mechanical transducers are presented that make use of displacement amplification structures, Moiré pattern gratings, and double-ended-tuning-fork (DETF). These are designed such that in response to an input load or displacement they produce an output signal that can be easily acquired using the camera or microphone of a mobile device. The computing power and connectivity of mobile devices makes a wide range of processing, visualisation and storage techniques possible at low cost. Using this technique an optical displacement transducer with a range of 150 µm, and a resolution of <5 µm, and an acoustic displacement transducer with a range of 20 µm and a standard error of 0.14 µm, are demonstrated
Ikuo Ihara (Nagaoka University of Technology, Japan) and Shingo Aoki (Nagaoka University of Technology, Japan)
In this work, the feasibility of the use of ultrasonic thermometry for in-situ monitoring of temperature rise in friction surface has been examined. The ultrasonic thermometry that is a method providing internal temperature measurements by ultrasound is applied to temperature measurements of a friction surface at which temperature rise occurs due to friction, and an attempt is made to demonstrate in-situ monitoring of transient variations in the friction surface temperature and temperature distribution beneath the surface. Those temperatures near the friction surface are quantitatively determined by an effective method consisting of ultrasonic pulse-echo measurements and a finite difference calculation for estimating a one-dimensional temperature distribution along the direction of ultrasound propagation. The advantage of the method is that no boundary condition at the friction surface is needed. To demonstrate the practical feasibility of the method, the ultrasonic pulse echo measurements at 5 MHz are performed for a steel plate of 30 mm thickness whose single side is being rubbed with a felted fabric plate. The temperature at the friction surface and internal temperature distribution of the steel plate are measured during the rubbing process and the transient variations of the measured temperatures are obtained. Quick temperature rise of approximately 30 K at the friction surface is observed within a few seconds after the rubbing starts. It is noted that the temperatures measured by the ultrasonic method almost agree with those measured using thermocouples inserted into the steel plate. Thus, it has been demonstrated that the ultrasonic thermometry is a promising sensing means for in-situ monitoring of temperatures at friction surface as well as beneath the surface.
Ami Iokibe (Osaka University, Japan), Masanori Hashimoto (Osaka University, Japan) and Takao Onoye (Osaka University, Japan)
Increasing interest in security demands privacy-aware security systems, which do not use camera, especially for personal home security. As a candidate for this purpose, this paper presents an instant invader detection system that finds an invader by using small sensor nodes distributed on the ground. Once a sensor node detects a suspicious phenomenon, this information is wirelessly transmitted to the base in the house. This paper, as a first step, evaluates the feasibility of the proposed system in terms of invader detection accuracy and system lifetime. We firstly investigate what sensor can be used and how the sensor should be used for the human detection. Then, for evaluating the proportion of invader detection and necessary energy for sensor nodes, we perform simulations that are based on the measured characteristics of ultrasonic sensors placed on the ground. Experimental results show that the proposed system can attain 99% invader detection while the sensor nodes can survive with a button cell for four years. In addition, this performance can be obtained even with the sensors randomly scattered on the ground, which could facilitate the installation of the proposed system.
Ikkeun Park (Seoul National University of Science and Technology, Korea) and Taesung Park (Hanyang University, Korea)
In this study, we suggest a method to measure the thickness of thin films nondestructively using the dispersion characteristics of a surface acoustic wave propagating along the thin film surface. To measure the thickness of thin films, we deposited thin films with different thicknesses on a Si(100) wafer substrate by controlling the deposition time by DC sputtering technique. The thickness of the thin films was measured using a scanning electron microscope. Subsequently, the surface wave velocity of the thin films with different thickness was measured using V(z) curve method of scanning acoustic microscopy. The correlation between the measured thickness and surface acoustic wave velocity was verified. The wave velocity of the film decreased as the film thickness increased. Consequently, film thickness can be determined by measuring the dispersion characteristics of the surface acoustic wave velocity.
Daniela Florian (Johannes Kepler University of Linz, Austria), Thomas Wiesner (Johannes Kepler Universität, Austria) and Bernhard G. Zagar (University of Linz, Austria)
Copper becomes more and more important in the electronic industry. This metal is more stressable than conventional materials (like aluminium) due to the higher electrical and thermal conductivity. During several electrical stress pulses the copper changes. The surface can melt up as well as cracks and voids can develop inside the copper specimen.
In this paper we use acoustic emission testing to analyse copper degradation especially of copper and copper traces. It is evaluated if an acoustic wave excited by the electrical stress pulse can be detected by a simple measurement setup and if a correlation between the acoustic signal and the degradation exists. The idea is that during the degradation the behaviour of the material changes which in turn influences the emitted acoustic signal.
John Barton (Tyndall National Institute, Ireland), Jose Zamora (Leitat Technological Centre, Spain), Cliona Ni Cheallachain (AquaTT, Ireland), Jordi Salat (CSIC, Spain), Paolo Magni (CNR, Italy), Pablo Fanjul (DropSens, Spain), John Cleary (Dublin City University, Ireland), Anita Grozdanov (FTM-UCM, Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of), Fabio Confalonieri (Idronaut, Italy), Javier Gamboa (Barcelona Foundation for Ocean Sailing, Spain), Joanna Piwowarczyk (Institute of Oceanology Polish Academy of Science, Poland), Yassine Lassoued (University College Cork, Ireland), Carles Pizarro (Snelloptics, Spain), Saskia Heckmann (SubCTech GMBH, Germany), Emma Moynihan (TE Laboratories, Ireland) and Mike Challiss (Cefas, United Kingdom)
COMMON SENSE is a new project that supports the implementation of European Union marine policies such as the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) and the Common Fisheries Policy (CFP). The project, which was launched in November 2013, is funded by the EC Seventh Framework Programme (FP7) and has been designed to directly respond to requests for integrated and effective data acquisition systems by developing innovative sensors that will contribute to our understanding of how the marine environment functions. COMMON SENSE is coordinated by the Leitat Technological Centre, Spain, and its consortium brings together 15 partners from seven different countries, encompassing a wide range of technical expertise and know-how in the marine monitoring area.
Anuroop Gaddam (Waikato Institute of Technology, New Zealand), Mofarh Alhrooby (Waikato Institute of Technology, New Zealand) and Wesam Esmael (Waikato Institute of Technology, New Zealand)
Global warming and lowest of rain were of the most problems that caused to increased drought around the world. In New Zealand, according to National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA) the drought in 2012 and 2013 was the worst for about 70 years. Therefore there is need for technological intervention to monitor the basic information about the weather, soil condition in order to identify, predict drought conditions. Initial experiments have proved that the developed wireless sensor drought monitoring system was capable of remote real-time monitoring for unattended environment for an extended periods. This monitoring can also help identify plant stress in the early stages and thereby prompt to take corrective measures to be taken at early stages. Monitoring soil condition is done by using various intelligent sensors in a wireless network. These sensors collect various parameters and then send the pre-processed data wirelessly to a base station. From base station this data was uploaded to the cloud (internet) for further analysis, graphing in real time. If a drought condition is identified by the monitoring system then an alert message will be sent to the user via text message or as an email.
Cristian Zet (Technical University of Iasi, Romania), Cristian Fosalau (Technical University of Iasi, Romania) and Daniel Petrisor (Technical University of Iasi, Romania)
The paper presents a study on the measurement stability of a landslide sensor based on four magnetic amorphous wire strain gauges used in an Wheatstone bridge configuration. The sensor is aimed for in-situ monitoring using a distributed sensor network. The experiment has been performed in the lab using a test stand, while a time step progressive deformation has been applied to the sensor. Results show a good stability of the measurement and a variable sensitivity with respect to the bending point.
Cristian Fosalau (Technical University of Iasi, Romania), Cristian Zet (Technical University of Iasi, Romania) and Daniel Petrisor (Technical University of Iasi, Romania)
The paper presents a device devoted to detect and measure earth displacements produced by landslides. It is part of inclinometer type geotechnical instruments and is based on measuring the deformation produced to a rod vertically mounted into the ground during soil layers sliding. With respect to other commercial devices, our inclinometer is characterized by high sensitivity to very small deformations owing to special strain gauges utilized in its construction, and also by possibility of 3D measuring, it being able to gauge in depth the amplitude and orientation of the soil layers displacement.
Patryk Kot (Liverpool John Moores University, United Kingdom), Jeff Cullen (Liverpool John Moores University, United Kingdom), Mohamad Al Jader (Liverpool John Moores University, United Kingdom), Andrew Shaw (University of Liverpool, United Kingdom), Alex Mason (Liverpool John Moores University, United Kingdom), Ahmed I Al-Shamma'a (Liverpool John Moores University, United Kingdom), Tony Cockcroft (Stagecoach, United Kingdom), Steve Jackson (Stagecoach, United Kingdom) and Mark Cleave (Merseytravel, United Kingdom)
In this paper, an experimental methodology for the modular multi-channel GPS environmental logger is presented, and the preliminary real route test is demonstrated. The paper will concentrate on methods used for transmitting real time data from electrochemical analyser and GPS unit into Graphical User Interface. Test will be made in environmental conditions and route of the vehicle will be plotted on the map with the data from emission analyser. All results are presented and concluded.
Cyril Baby K (TU Munich, India) and Norbert Schwesinger (Technische Universität München, Germany)
In this paper, details of an improved imperfect sensor for measuring mechanical parameters is presented. A PDMS (Polydimethylsiloxane) membrane filled with randomly distributed conductive balls is the sensing element. The random distribution of the balls make the sensor imperfect and unique, like sensors in nature. Mechanical forces such as pressure, tilt and acceleration deform the membrane. Capacitive electrodes transform the movement of the membrane filled with conductive balls into change in capacitance. As all the conductive balls are randomly distributed, an Interdigitated Electrode (IDE) structure offers less sensitivity. An improved electrode structure is also proposed. The performance of the improved electrode is compared with IDE for pressure, tilt and acceleration. Simulation and test results showed that the improved electrode offers higher sensitivity compared to the IDE. Further more, the improved electrode also improves the directional sensitivity. A ground plane is provided to to reduce the fixed offset capacitance and minimize the effect of noise. The sensor is simple, robust and easy to fabricate.
Deborshi Chakraborty (Jadavpur University, India) and Madhurima Chattopadhyay (West Bengal University of Technology & Heritage Institute of Technology, India)
In this paper, we present a MEMS based capacitive nasal sensor system for measuring human Respiration Rate (RR). Two identical MEMS based capacitive nasal sensors are to be mounted below Right Nostril (RN) and Left Nostril (LN), in such a way that the nasal airflow during inspiration and expiration impinge on these sensors. Due to nasal airflow, the designed square diaphragm of the sensor is being deflected and thus induces a corresponding change in the original capacitance value. As this sensor is to be connected to a Colpitts oscillator, a change in the capacitance value between the patch electrodes modulates the frequency of the Colpitts oscillator and the respiration information is obtained by demodulating the oscillating signal. The designed MEMS based capacitive nasal sensors is capable of identifying normal (18.5±1.5 bpm) conditions in a human being. The sensor design and its characteristics analysis are performed in a FEA/BEA based virtual design software platform.
Mohamed Serry (The American University in Cairo, Egypt)
In this paper, we aim to demonstrate a novel scheme for integration of nanostructured semiconductor Graphene Oxide (GO) shottky diodes on flexible substrate for a wide range of sensing applications. The platform introduces a novel flexible GO/Pt/n-Si and GO/Pt/SiN composite structures which provides excellent optical and electrical properties, while maintaining an acceptable mechanical, biocompatibility, and return loss performance. The new structure was investigated for glucose, radiation, and infrared sensing. The sensors results showed ultrahigh sensitivity and high linearity in the targeted regions of interest. Moreover, the use of nanostructured materials allows for the development of a new generation of modern printed circuit antennas and will enable wide range of applications merging both technologies for a wide range of wearable and implantable sensing devices.
Callum Johnston (University of Auckland, New Zealand), Bryan P. Ruddy (University of Auckland, New Zealand), Poul F Nielsen (University of Auckland, New Zealand) and Andrew Taberner (University of Auckland, New Zealand)
Very high resolution power sensors are required for measuring the rate of heat production of small samples of heart muscle. In this paper, we examine the design criteria for thermopiles to maximize their signal-to-noise ratio for heat balance calorimetry. We found that those thermopiles with a high thermoelectric figure-of-merit are the best for power measurements. An initial prototype with a resolution of 53 nW has been built.
T. Nakadai (Tokyo University of Science, Japan), Tomoki Taguchi (Tokyo University of Science, Japan), Hiroshi Mizoguchi (Tokyo University of Science, Japan), Ryohei Egusa (Kobe University, Japan), Shigenori Inagaki (Kobe University, Japan), Yoshiaki Takeda (Kobe University, Japan), Miki Namatame (Tsukuba University of Technology, Japan), Masanori Sugimoto (Hokkaido University, Japan), Fusako Kusunoki (Tama Art University, Japan) and Etsuji Yamaguchi (Kobe University, Japan)
Mixed sounds can be separated from multiple sound sources by utilizing a microphone array and signal processing. We believe that promotion of interest in this technique can lead to significant developments in future science and technology. Consequently, in order to experience this technique, we designed a language game for children called "KIKIWAKE 3D" that uses a sound source separation system with the aim of arousing children's interest in this technology. In this paper, we discuss the development of a spherical microphone array with three-dimensional directivity introduced to make the game more interesting and to facilitate a larger number of participants.
The pressure exerted by foot, while a person is standing still for a while or moving or doing any physical activity, is a rich source of information. The continuous signal obtained throughout the day, collected by pressure-sensors on shoe sole, could be analyzed to obtain simple to complex facts about the person's health conditions and habits. It could be used to measure body-weight and balance, while the person is standing. It could as well be used to find the total calorie burnt during movement activities throughout the day. Varied applications would need different number of sensors spread over inside or outside the shoe-sole. In this work, we restrict our investigation to simple applications like, measuring the body weight when the person is standing still, or the speed when the person is moving, or whether she/he is climbing up or down the stairs. Our aim is to use as few sensors as possible, and the algorithm simple and efficient. For measuring body-weight and movement speed, we could achieve nearly 100% accuracy. We could also classify between climbing up or down the stairs with 100% accuracy. All these could be accomplished by a single or a pair of sensors. It is also revealed that the optimum location of the sensor/s for the highest accuracy varies from person to person.
Penghai Wang (Beijing Microelectronics Technology Institution, P.R. China)
In most sports, the vertical jump is one of the most basic actions. Jumping force and explosive power are two specific indicators to reflect the ability of the muscles in one vertical jump. This paper presents a light-weight and easy-to-use wireless system to analyze the process of human vertical jumping up through the use of a Micro Electro Mechanical System (MEMS) accelerometer and a MEMS gyroscope. The system allows the users to be able to measure the jump parameters, including jumping force and explosive power of athletes' lower limbs. Then the noise of the system has been analyzed briefly, and a finite impulse response (FIR) low pass filter is designed to eliminate the noise. The system has been compared with a commercial performance measuring system-Myotest, and a traditional force test platform-HUR. The results show that parameters can be collected precisely by it and there is a possibility to apply this system for other actions.
Amruta Helwatkar (Institute of Technology Tralee & IMAR Technology Gateway, Ireland), Daniel Riordan (Institute of Technology, Tralee, Ireland) and Joseph Walsh (Institute of Technology, Tralee, Ireland)
The scale of dairy farming worldwide has changed significantly over recent years, with a move towards larger, more intensive, profit-driven enterprises, primarily due to market pressures. This change has resulted in demand for technologies which can reduce costs and labour inputs while increasing farm productivity. This is largely achieved through the use of farm automation and advanced technological techniques. An important aspect of farm automation which is currently being researched is the area of automated animal health monitoring. In this research, we have identified specific diseases which are common in dairy animals which can be identified through the use of non-invasive, low-cost, sensor technology. These diseases have been mapped to specific aspects of animal behaviour which have been mapped to the three sensors which are most significant to identify these diseases. The identified sensors will be shown to be vital in the development of the next generation of health monitoring system for dairy animals. Such a system will allow the automated identification of animal health events, greatly increasing overall herd health and yield while reducing animal health inspection and long-term animal healthcare costs.
Avijit Mathur (University of Limerick, Ireland) and Thomas Newe (University of Limerick, Ireland)
The need for technology to assist in medical monitoring applications is becoming more necessary in society as the number of patients in hospital and clinics continues to grow. The demand on staff to monitor every individual consistently becomes necessary. Wireless sensor networks (WSN) are now being used to facilitate this on-demand monitoring both at the patients home and in the hospital/clinic environment. This paper looks at the basic parameters necessary for a medical based WSN with particular focus on communication platforms and their security. These parameters will be compared and contrasted and the main components necessary to form an ideal medical WSN will be highlighted.
Dennis Snelders (TNO, The Netherlands) and Arjen Boersma (TNO, The Netherlands)
Important progress has been made towards the expanding of the limits of applicability of Fiber Bragg Grating optical sensors. The development of new thermostable coatings has opened up the possibility towards the use of this technology under extreme conditions, i.e. at high temperatures and pressures. The developed sensors have been tested for adsorption of a range of gaseous analytes and exhibit a sensitivity towards linear alkanes. Preliminary tests at high temperature in liquid phase indicate a high thermal stability.
Maciej Trawka (Gdansk University of Technology, Poland), Janusz Smulko (Gdansk University of Technology, Poland), Lech Hasse (Gdansk University of Technology & Faculty of Electronics, Telecommunications and Informatics, Poland), Claes Granqvist (The Angstrom Laboratory, Uppsala University, Sweden), Radu Ionescu (Universita Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria, Italy), Fatima Annanouch (Rovira i Virgily University Tarragona, Poland), Eduard Llobet (Rovira i Virgily University Tarragona, Spain) and Laszlo Kish (Texas A&M University, USA)
WO3 nanowires (WO3-NWs) decorated with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were utilized in resistive gas sensor devices to detect ethanol by use of fluctuation enhanced sensing (FES). The experimental system records both DC resistance and fluctuations of the sensing film. Our data verify that the sensitivity and selectivity of the gas sensor are improved by applying FES when the sensor is stimulated with a combination of UV light and heating. We conclude that UV light can produce improved gas sensing at low operating temperatures for the investigated AuNPdecorated WO3-NWs films.
Hikmat Banimuslem (Sheffield Hallam University, United Kingdom), Aaeel Hassan (Sheffield Hallam University, United Kingdom), Tamara Basova (Nikolaev Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Russia), Asuman Gülmez (Gebze Institute of Technology, Turkey), Mahmut Durmuş (Gebze Institute of Technology, Turkey), Ayşe Gürek (Gebze Institute of Technology, Turkey) and Vefa Ahsen (Gebze Institute of Technology, Turkey)
Hybrid materials were produced by mixing CuPcR4 with acidified SWCNTs and characterised by UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Thin films of pristine CuPcR4 and SWCNT/CuPcR4 were prepared by spin coating onto gold-coated glass slides and applied as active layers to detect herbicides in water utilizing TIRE as an optical detection method. Different concentrations in water ranging from 0.5 to 20 µg/l were examined in the current work. The shifts in Δ(λ) spectra of SWCNT/CuPcR4 films were evidently larger than those produced by the pristine CuPcR4 films, indicating largely improved films' sensitivity of the hybrid films
Songhae Ye (KHNP, Korea) and Joon Lyou (Chungnam National University, Korea)
The premise of accident mitigation lies in the accurate diagnosis of the accident. The serious accident which is melting the core of the nuclear reactor at the nuclear power plant (NPP), the influence of accident is very serious particularly. Examples of this kind may be found in Fukushima accident. Therefore, rapid incident response and accurate diagnosis is more important than anything. The ultimate goal of severe accident mitigation at a nuclear reactor is to maintain the confidentiality of the containment building and the cooling of core meltdown in the reactor. Confirming the progress state of diagnosis and cooling of the reactor core when occurring the serious accident, is a very important factor in the development of response strategies after the accident. Japan has taken various measures to deal with accidents after the nuclear accident of Fukushima. Strengthening the reliability of instrumentation system is also included in the counterstrategies. Therefore, in this paper present the expected effects and the temperature distribution display method of the core by using in-core instruments Assembly (ICI) with multiple thermocouples. This research project is currently underway in Korea.
Vinod Parameswaran (University of Southern Queensland, Australia)
Underground terrain poses a highly intricate and challenging environment to the propagation of waves carrying information from sensor to the sink nodes. Due to the complexity and level of detail, it is often difficult to realistically model such an environment for conducting tests. However, using numerical methods, the environment characteristics could be translated to a compatible framework, for testing complex networking models such as Wireless Underground Sensor Network (WUSN). Such transformation should lend the necessary clarity and simplicity required for effective problem analysis. In this paper, we demonstrate this possibility using the typical underground terrain environment for nut tree plantations, basing the field data on a full-fledged commercial pecan farm. The results shown are introductory to ongoing research on the effective use of such numerical methods for maximum power efficiency and bit rate for distributed WUSN, and optimum water usage in irrigation control. This paper forms a sequel to previous related research publications.
Jose Barreiro (ISCTE-IUL, Portugal), Octavian Adrian Postolache (Instituto de Telecomunicaçōes, Lisboa/IT & Instituto Universitario de Lisboa, ISCTE-IUL, Portugal) and Pedro Passos (FMH, UL, Portugal)
Cycling assessment to increase performance during sport training. In this condition the article presents a wireless sensor network including multi-sensing channels for dynamic and cinematic measurement during cycling training. The Smart Mountain Bike is a system that include the bicycle and the associated sports equipment, such as gloves, shoes and chest strap. The system is characterized by sensing channels as part of wireless sensor network which base station is expressed by embedded computer and a 3G/UMTS shield which permit the data communication with a cloud server. The data stored on the server is accessed through a mobile application that analyzes and correlates all user information and allows data visualization with a friendly graphical interface.
Jinseong Park (Chosun University, Korea) and Woonyoung Lee (Chosun University, Korea)
NTC thermistors of Y-Al-Mn-Fe-Ni-Cr-O systems were fabricated by using normal ceramic processing for wide temperature range measurement. Pt-Rh alloy as electrodes was inserted into the body during the forming process to increase the reliability of high temperature and to decrease the contact resistance. The properties were analyzed by XRD, SEM and resistance measurement. There are no distinct XRD patterns between Y0.2Al0.1Mn0.27Fe0.16Ni0.27Ox and Y0.2Al0.1Mn0.264Fe0.16 Ni0.264Cr0.012Ox because of too small content of Cr2O3, as a dopant, to make peak difference or new phases within the XRD resolution. SEM images and resistance behaviors show the different properties. With the addition of Cr2O3 as a dopant, the crystallinity and the grain size were decreased and increased, respectively. The resistance behaviors were similar but the values are low with Cr2O3. The specimens show the straight line relationship between the electrical resistivity and the temperature over a wide temperature range, indicating NTC thermistor characteristics.
Tomohiro Nakayama (Tokyo University of Science, Japan), Ryuichi Yoshida (Tokyo University of Science, Japan), T. Nakadai (Tokyo University of Science, Japan), Takeki Ogitsu (Tokyo University of Science, Japan), Hiroshi Mizoguchi (Tokyo University of Science, Japan), Izuishi Kaori (Tama Art University, Japan), Fusako Kusunoki (Tama Art University, Japan), Muratsu Keita (Kobe University, Japan) and Shigenori Inagaki (Kobe University, Japan)
The authors are developing a simulation-based environmental learning support system using Kinect sensors. Obviously, it is impossible for learners to experience the actual paleontological environment, and it is therefore difficult for them to learn about the environments and lives. Then, we proposed an immersive animation display system using Kinect sensors and their human skeleton-tracking function. The system animates paleontological animals and their environment on the screen and displays information of the animals in synchronization with learners' action. Learners are measured their location and action in real time, and then the animation is controlled based on information output from sensors. In this way, the system provides learners with a real body experience and sense of immersion that they have entered the paleontological environment. In order to evaluate the system, we conduct an experiment using the system, and interview the participants about the sense of immersion into environment in the system. The experimental results confirm that most learners feel a tangible improvement in the sense of immersion due to the enjoyment of moving their body and acquisition of body experience.
Cyril Baby K (Indian Institute of Technology Madras, India) and Boby George (Indian Institute of Technology Madras, India)
This paper presents a capacitive sensing system for non-contact detection of ice from a distance of 8 to 10 cm and distinguishes it from water. It is well known that the Relative Permittivity (RP) of ice and water are almost equal at low frequencies, in the range of a few kHz. At a high frequency of excitation, i. e., about 100 kHz and above, the RP of water remains same, but that of ice substantially reduces. A capacitive sensor, wherein, the ice or water layer forms part of the sensing volume can be used to detect presence of ice. It can be distinguished from water by measuring and then comparing the capacitance values at low as well as high frequencies. Such a sensor for road ice detection has been reported, but it requires the sensing electrodes to be in close contact with the ice layer. Recently, a capacitive non-contact ice detector has been reported. The sensing range of this system was limited to 3 cm, even after employing active shielding to reduce the effect of offset capacitance. As the distance between ice layer and sensor increases, the ratio of change in sensor capacitance to offset capacitance reduces to very small. This paper reports application of a capacitance measurement circuit that can provide an output as a function of presence of ice. The proposed scheme does not use active shield even when the sensor has large offset capacitance. A prototype of the new scheme has been developed and tested in the laboratory. It detected presence of ice layer of thickness 2 mm from a distance of 10 cm and distinguished it from water.
Prashanth Vooka (Indian Institute of Technology Madras, India) and Boby George (Indian Institute of Technology Madras, India)
Capacitance-to-Digital Converter (CDC) ICs available in the market use square wave excitation signals but a sinusoidal excitation is preferred in various applications, such as ice detection, liquid level measurement, humidity measurement, proximity sensing, etc. A dual slope technique based CDC that employs a sinusoidal excitation has been reported recently, but it requires a large number of excitation cycles, to complete an accurate conversion. This paper presents an improved CDC that employs a specially designed method to achieve high accuracy even when a much smaller number of excitation cycles, than the reported scheme, are employed to complete the conversion. A prototype CDC has been developed and tested. In comparison with an existing CDC, the new CDC achieved a substantial reduction (by a factor of 4000) in the number of excitation cycles during integration period, resulting in an improved update rate. Worst case error observed from the prototype CDC was less than 0.24%.
Ramanathan Nagarajan Ponnalagu (IIT Madras, India), Boby George (Indian Institute of Technology Madras, India) and Jagadeesh Kumar V (Indian Institute of Technology Madras, India)
A direct resistive sensor interface to a micro-controller reported earlier, works well only if the sensor element is very close to the micro-controller pins. If the sensor element is at a distance from the micro-controller then the lead resistance due to connecting wires between resistive sensor element and the micro-controller introduces appreciable errors in the output. A modified scheme of direct sensor interface to micro-controller is presented here. In the proposed scheme, the effect of lead resistances is compensated and thus the proposed direct resistive sensor interface to a micro-controller works well even if the sensor is kept at distance and connected through long connecting wires. Since the lead wire resistance is compensated, automatic temperature compensation (temperature effect of lead wires) is obtained. The results obtained from simulation and experimental results recorded from a prototype of the proposed scheme establishes the effectiveness of the proposed method in eliminating the effect of lead resistance in the output. Worst-case error noted in the simulation output was < ± 0.23 % and the worst-case error of the prototype unit was found to be < ± 0.33 %.
Valentina Zhukova (Basque Country University, UPV/EHU, Spain), Juan del Val (UPV/EHU, Spain), Mihail Ipatov (Basque Country University, UPV/EHU, Spain), Maxim Ilyn (UPV/EHU, Spain), Alexandr Granovsky (Moscow State University, Russia) and Arcady Zhukov (Basque Country University, UPV/EHU & Ikerbasque, Science Foundation, Spain)
We report on magnetic, transport and structural properties of Cox-Cu100-x (5≤x≤40) glass-coated microwires. For x=5 we observed the resistivity minimum at 40 K associated with the Kondo effect. For x ≥ 10 we observed considerable magnetoresistance effect. Temperature dependence of susceptibility show considerable difference for x>10 and x≤ 10 attributed to the presence of small Co grains embedded in the Cu matrix for x≥ 10. Using X-ray diffraction we found, that the structure of Cox-Cu100-x microwires x ≥ 10 is granular consisting of two phases: fcc Cu appearing in all the samples and fcc α-Co presented only in microwires with higher Co content.
Thomas Schlegl (Graz University of Technology, Austria), Thomas Bretterklieber (Graz University of Technology, Austria), Stephan Mühlbacher-Karrer (Alpen-Adria Universität, Austria) and Hubert Zangl (Alpen-Adria Universität, Austria)
In the measurement of mutual capacitance between electrodes both the coupling and the leakage effect contribute to the measurement result whereas the leakage mode is dominant in the self capacitance mode. While the coupling effect is mainly defined by the geometry and material distribution close to the electrodes, the root cause or modulation of the leakage effect may
be far away from the electrode. It is shown that utilizing both effects may lead to an improvement of an ECT-like scenario reconstruction performance in open environments (e.g. pretouch applications).
Julien Claudel (Université de Lorraine-CNRS, France), Mustapha Nadi (Université de Lorraine-CNRS & Institut Jean Lamour, France), Omar Elmazria (Université de Lorraine-CNRS, France) and Djilali Kourtiche (NANCY Université, France)
This paper presents a micro-biosensor based on Electrical Bio-Impedance Spectroscopy (EBIS), applied to blood cells characterization and diagnosis. This sensor uses microfluidic flow, coupled to EBIS system to perform cell by cell measurements at high flow rate, up to several hundred cells per second. Two devices were realized with different materials, SU_8 resin and polydimethylsyloxane PDMS to structure the microchannel. PDMS device stand higher pressure than SU_8, permitting to improve sensor reliability and the possibility to clean it. Measurements confirm it ability to detect and characterize each cell and particle in less than 1ms during their passage in a microchannel, allowing high speed diagnosis of a large amount of cells. Calibrated particles were used to check the proper functioning of the sensor and the possibility to detect and measure few variation induce by the passage of cells.
Thanh-Tuan Ngo (University of Lorraine, France), Shirzadfar Hamidreza (Université de Lorraine-CNRS, France), Ayoub Bourjilat (Université de Lorraine, France), Djilali Kourtiche (Université de Lorraine-CNRS, France) and Mustapha Nadi (Université de Lorraine-CNRS & Institut Jean Lamour, France)
In this work, we present a new method for a planar interdigital transducer to determine the electrical parameters (relative permittivity, capacitance and thickness) of the double layer (DL) on the surface of the electrode loaded by a biological medium. A theoretical approach has been proposed to define these parameters. The CoventorWare software was used to simulate the model design of interdigital transducer. The simulation results show that the method can determine the parameters of double layers of a planar interdigital sensor. These results are consistent with the theoretical analysis.
Muhammad Rao (University of Limerick, Ireland), Thomas Newe (University of Limerick, Ireland) and Ian Grout (University of Limerick, National Technological Park, Ireland)
Data integrity is a term used when referring to the accuracy and reliability of data. It ensures that data is not altered during operations, such as transfer, storage, or retrieval. Any changes to the data for example malicious intention, unpredicted hardware failure or human error would results in failure of data integrity. Cryptographic hash functions are generally used for the verification of data integrity. For many Internet of Things (IoT) applications, hardware implementations of cryptographic hash functions are needed to provide near real time data integrity checking. The IoT is a world where billions of objects can sense, share information and communicate over interconnected public or private Internet Protocol (IP) networks. This paper provides an implementation of a newly selected cryptographic hash algorithm called Secure Hash Algorithm - 3 (SHA-3) on Xilinx FPGAs (Spartan, Virtex, Kintex and Artix) and also provides the power analysis of the implemented design. An FPGA is used as they are seen as the best leading platform of the modern era in terms of flexibility, reliability and re-configurability. In this implementation the core functionality of SHA-3 is implemented using LUT-6 primitives and then these primitives are instantiated for the complete implementation of SHA-3. The Xilinx Xpower tool is used for power analysis of the implemented design. This implementation can be used with IoT applications to provide near real time data integrity checks.
Patrizia Vergallo (University of Salento, Italy), Aime' Lay-Ekuakille (University of Salento, Italy), Nicola Ivan Giannoccaro (University of Salento, Italy), Antonio Trabacca (IRCCS Eugenia Medea, Associazione La Nostra Famiglia, BRINDISI - ITALY, Italy), Roberta Della Porta (IRCCS Eugenia Medea, Associazione La Nostra Famiglia, BRINDISI - ITALY, Italy) and Marta De Rinaldis (IRCCS Eugenia Medea, Associazione La Nostra Famiglia, BRINDISI - ITALY, Italy)
Processing of signals acquired from sensor systems needs of accurate algorithms to extract information of interest concerning the problem object of study. In this work Empirical Mode Decomposition method is used on EEG signals obtained during polysomnography examination, when electromyographic (EMG) signals are acquired too. EMD method decomposes a signal into components named Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMF) which can exhibit important time-frequency information related to signals under observation. Since EEG signals are obtained from multiple electrodes, the problem is addressed to processing of signals acquired from multiple channels according to sensor array techniques. The objective of the our work is to define an automatic method to detect transient event, changes of sleep stage in EEG signals which can allow an evaluation of the state of the patient. In this first step we analyze and process EEG signals through EMD method to remove EMG contributes. The obtained results are encouraging in the definition of a future multivariate approach to quantify brain activity by evaluating correlation of the IMFs calculated for each channel.
Ramanathan Nagarajan Ponnalagu (IIT Madras, India), Boby George (Indian Institute of Technology Madras, India) and Jagadeesh Kumar V (Indian Institute of Technology Madras, India)
A dual slope direct digital converter (DSDDC) suitable for resistive sensor elements already connected in a bridge form is presented. A conventional dual slope analog to digital converter (DS-ADC) is altered with an intentionally introduced instrumentation amplifier (INA) to realize the proposed DDC. The DSDDC accepts bridge connected resistive sensor elements as input and provides a digital output that is proportional to the quantity being sensed by the sensor elements. The results obtained from simulation of the proposed DSDDC indicate a worst case error in the output to be < ±0.03 %. Experimental results from a prototype unit, presented herein, demonstrate the practicality the scheme. Worst case error of the prototype unit was found to be < ±0.07 % with test conducted using standard decade resistance boxes emulating the sensor elements. The worst case error in the prototype was < ±0.05 % when tested with a load-cell made of four strain gauges.
Prashanth Vooka (Indian Institute of Technology Madras, India) and Boby George (Indian Institute of Technology Madras, India)
A new Capacitance-to-Digital Converter (CDC) applicable for series RC sensors that requires/prefers sinusoidal excitation is proposed in this paper. The CDC presented works based on a dual-slope technique and it gives a digital output as a function of unknown capacitance of a series RC sensor, i.e., a capacitive sensor with a capacitor and a resistor in series in its electrical equivalent circuit. Output of the CDC is not sensitive to the series resistor. The CDC is useful for grounded as well as floating capacitive sensors, which needs to be excited with a sine wave for best performance. Applications of such capacitive sensors include ice detection, sterility testing of packed food products, etc. A sinusoidal Howland current source can be used to excite a grounded capacitive sensor while a simple current source with a special stabilization scheme that suppresses the effect due to static errors of opamp has been developed for floating capacitive sensor and presented in this paper. A prototype of the proposed CDC for a floating capacitive sensor has been built and tested in the laboratory. Measurement results for the sensor capacitance showed a worst case error of 0.13% for a range of 100 pF, proving the efficacy of the proposed scheme.
A promising optoelectronic clock solution with low jitter, high bandwidth and accurate delay for a TIADC is proposed by exploiting optical pulses and tunable optical delay lines. It is feasible to construct the optoelectronic clock system with optical pulse source, dispersive medium, tunable delay line in optical domain and conditioning circuits in electronic domain while photodiodes as the bridge. The testing result of the designed conditioning circuit shows that using electronic method to adjust the signal will induce jitter degradation of the optoelectronic clock system.
Lisa Helen (University College Cork, Ireland), Walter Messina (University College Cork, Ireland), Brian O'Donnell (Cork University Hospital, Ireland) and Eric Moore (University College Cork, Ireland)
Our research is concentrated on development of a 'smart' needle which will improve the safety of ultrasound-guided peripheral nerve block (USgPNB) by providing the clinician with bioimpedance data to identify the type of tissue the needle tip is in contact with. This paper outlines a feasibility study performed to determine the electrical bioimpedance of a number of different tissue types and the extent to which they can be differentiated from each other based on this variable factor. All cells have different electrical properties which results in characteristic bioimpedance profiles. A macro-needle was constructed to facilitate determination of this trait in lamb, pork and beef tissue samples. Frequencies of between 10 kHz - 100 kHz were identified as the optimum range for measurement of samples at both 12 oC and 37 oC. Our study showed that bioimpedance was inversely proportional to temperature. Further investigations in muscle, fat and connective tissue were performed at 30 kHz, 50 kHz and 70 kHz demonstrating significant order of magnitude of separation between all three sample types. These results allowed the determination of bioimpedance ranges for each tissue. The possibility of using bioimpedance to differentiate between tissue types was demonstrated successfully during this study and thus supports the concept of the 'smart' needle for this application.
Anandh Bose (Majmaah University, Saudi Arabia) and Raid Al Baradie (Majmaah University, Saudi Arabia)
Total cholesterol monitoring in human blood serum is one of the most important routine analysis performed in clinical laboratory. Epidemiological studies have shown a strong correlation between coronary heart disease and blood cholesterol level. There is need for a method that is sufficiently flexible to yield good results in clinical laboratory. Numbers of cholesterol biosensors have been developed over the past 30 years. Fibre-optic fluorescence, Fibre-optic luminescence, Potentiometric, Spectrophotometric and Fluorometric biosensors, which determine cholesterol enzymatically. Some of these methods suffer from interference from other substances found in the blood such as ascorbic acid and uric acid. Therefore amperometric biosensor was designed based on titanium oxide nano particle with Advanced RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computing) Machine processor to determine the cholesterol level in human blood.
Asif Iqbal Zia (Massey University & COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, New Zealand), Subhas Mukhopadhyay (Massey University, New Zealand), Pak Yu (Massey University, New Zealand), Ibrahim Al-Bahadly (Massey University, New Zealand), Chinthaka Gooneratne (King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Saudi Arabia) and Jürgen Kosel (King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Saudi Arabia)
A portable low-cost micro-controller based testing system was designed and constructed to detect phthalates in aqueous media. Phthalates, especially di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate is the most ubiquitous endocrine disrupting compound (EDC) posing highest reproductive toxicity threat to all living species on earth. Frequency response analyser (FRA) approach was used to develop the rapid response, non-invasive electrochemical impedimetric system for detection. A smart thin film gold interdigital electrodes capacitive sensor with enhanced penetration depth was used with the proposed system for detection of the said EDC. The performance of the developed system was evaluated by comparing the results to the commercially available electrochemical Impedimetric frequency response analyzer equipment. Complex nonlinear least square (CNLS) curve fitting algorithm was used to deduce the equivalent circuit for the developed system. The DEHP detection results by the developed system were validated using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) diode array detection confirming that the proposed system was able to detect the concentration of phthalates in aqueous medium.
Marcela Salazar-Alvarez (University of Limerick, Ireland), Olga Korostynska (Liverpool John Moores University, United Kingdom), Alex Mason (Liverpool John Moores University, United Kingdom), Ahmed I Al-Shamma'a (Liverpool John Moores University, United Kingdom), Edmond Magner (University of Limerick, Ireland) and Syed Tofail (University of Limerick, Ireland)
A microwave interdigitated sensor was used to detect the adsorption of cytochrome c on hydroxyapatite films. Changes in the response were indicative of the presence of adsorbed cytochrome c. The sensitivity of the system was also evaluated using different protein loadings on the films. The results suggest that the microwave sensor can be utilized to detect protein.
K. Tashiro (Shinshu University, Japan), Azusa Ikegami (Shinshu University, Japan), Syoichiro Shimada (Shinshu University, Japan), Hiroaki Kojima (Shinshu University, Japan) and Hiroyuki Wakiwaka (Shinshu University, Japan)
This paper presents a design of magnetic field alarm powered by magnetic energy harvesting. It consists of energy harvesting module, Cockcroft-walton circuit and piezo buzzer. The energy harvesting module is composed of coil and magnetic flux concentration core. It can generate 200 µW from an environmental magnetic field of 200 µT at 60 Hz. The Cockcroft-walton circuit can converts the ac voltage to a suitable dc voltage for the piezo buzzer. This alarm can notice not only the magnetic field level defined by ICNIRP2010 but also the existence of magnetic field energy to be harvested. It is the first demonstration of a "self-generating component" powered by magnetic energy harvesting.
Patrick Poulichet (ESIEE, France), Dang Phuc Hung (Laboratoire Creatis, France), Tien Truong Cong (Laboratoire Creatis, France), Christophe Delabie (ESIEE, France), Abdenasser Fakri (ESIEE, France) and Latifa Fakri-Bouchet (Laboratoire Creatis, France)
This paper focuses on the magneto static simulation of magnet arrangement used for portable NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) apparatus. In NMR experiments, a very homogeneous magnetic field is required in a large sample volume. In our case, NdFeB magnets are used to generate a homogeneous field, with a Halbach arrangement. The homogeneity of the magnetic field B0 can be improved by dividing a long configuration of magnets into several rings. The size of useful volume is dependent on both the gap between each ring and some others shim magnets. Our aim is to enhance the sensitive volume size while maintain the highest magnetic field. In this goal, we optimized the gap between the two rings and put two shim magnets rings in the bore of the structure. Optimizing the position of the shim magnets allow drastic improvement. The homogeneity of the magnetic field B0 is optimized with the help of CAD and mathematical software. Our results were confirmed with a Finite Element Method. As a result the method described here achieves a significant improvement of the homogeneity in the particular case of Halbach arrangement.
Magomed Muradov (Liverpool John Moores University, United Kingdom), Alex Mason (Liverpool John Moores University, United Kingdom), Andrew Shaw (University of Liverpool, United Kingdom), Jeff Cullen (Liverpool John Moores University, United Kingdom), Ahmed I Al-Shamma'a (Liverpool John Moores University, United Kingdom), Badr M Abdullah (Liverpool John Moores University, United Kingdom) and Muhammad Ateeq (Liverpool John Moores University, United Kingdom)
The objective of this investigation is to monitor the meat drying process and try to analyse the changes of the electromagnetic (EM) signature from a patch antenna during the process. The antenna has been modelled using High Frequency Structure Simulation Software (HFSS) and then constructed. The experimental work carried out by placing a meat sample on a scale inside the fridge and recording reflection coefficient (S11) and weight measurements 24 times (every hour) a day during one month at the frequency range of 1GHz-6GHz. Then, the change in EM signature and weight loss is correlated and analysed. The results demonstrate a relationship between the reflection coefficient and weight loss of the meat sample. The weight of the sample drops down dramatically first week and then keeps steadily decreasing. Likewise, an amplitude shift is greater at the beginning of the drying process and then the shift stabilises.
Wayne Holmes (Unitec Institute of Technology, New Zealand), Mirjana Bogosanovic (Unitec Institute of Technology, New Zealand), Grant Emms (SCION, New Zealand) and Subhas Mukhopadhyay (Massey University, New Zealand)
In order to determine more accurate indicators of wood structure obtained by microwave sensing and improve our understanding of plane wave propagation through this complex material, we have undertaken a permittivity survey and experimentally investigated scattering of a plane wave, measuring its transmission over two non-parallel surfaces of a rectangular lumber sample. This novel non-destructive testing technique offers results which may significantly contribute in a more accurate propagation modeling and industrial wood quality testing.
A novel optical current sensor based on microfiber knot resonator (MKR) with magnetic fluid (MF) as cladding is proposed and demonstrated in this paper. The operating principles, package technique and mounting method of the proposed sensor are introduced in detail. Moreover, the performances of the proposed sensor are demonstrated experimentally by detecting sinusoidal current with 50 Hz and pulse current signals with rising time of 2.5 μs respectively. The results have shown that the relationship between the sensor responding and the applied current intensity is approximately linear and the minimal detectable current is 10 Amps with SNR (Signal-to-noise ratio) as 3.
Mohd Anwar Zawawi (University of Limerick & Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Malaysia), Sinead O'Keeffe (University of Limerick, Ireland) and Elfed Lewis (University of Limerick, Ireland)
This paper presents the development of an extrinsic optical fibre sensor for continuous measurement of the human spine bending movement based on intensity modulation technique. Using the investigated sensor configuration, the bending angle was measurable in both flexion and extension direction with a maximum range of motion of 19 deg. and -10 deg., respectively. From the output drift assessment of the sensor, bending accuracy of up to 0.5 deg. was achievable, thus making it suitable for clinical environment application. A divided-beam referencing technique was also implemented in the sensor configuration to compensate for the input power fluctuation and temperature variation.
Heeshin Kang (Korea Institute of Machinery & Materials, Korea) and Jiyeon Choi (Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, Korea)
In this paper, a study of process inspection technology is carried out for the inspection of laser and laser hybrid welding process. This paper proposes the quality monitoring method and the laser hybrid welding system with industrial robot for approving the welding speed and accuracy of conventional spot and laser welding systems. The laser hybrid welding process is consisted of the laser and arc welding process. The hybrid welding system has the cost efficiency of arc welding and good performance of laser welding. The laser generator, arc welding and the industrial robotic systems are consisted of laser hybrid welding systems with monitoring system. The laser hybrid welding system with robot was equipped with a laser head and arc welding gun for laser hybrid welding process. The welding joints are butt and Fillet joints. The welding specimens are made from the steel plate and aluminium plate. The quality of welding specimens is tested by observing the shape of the beads on the plate after hybrid welding. The cross-section of the welded parts is observed by using metallography method. The mechanical tensile test is carried out for analysing the performance of welding strength. The monitoring results of the plasma intensity by using UV and IR sensor are used for finding the correlation with the results of the mechanical and metallurgical test.
Susanne Hintschich (Fraunhofer Institute for Photonic Microsystems IPMS, Germany), Tino Pügner (Fraunhofer Institute for Photonic Microsystems IPMS, Germany), Jens Knobbe (Fraunhofer Institut für Photonische Mikrosysteme, Germany), Julia Schröder (Fraunhofer Institute for Photonic Microsystems IPMS, Germany), Peter Reinig (Fraunhofer Institute for Photonic Microsystems IPMS, Germany), Heinrich Grüger (Fraunhofer IPMS, Germany) and Harald Schenk (Fraunhofer IPMS, Germany)
We present a hybrid MEMS (micro-electromechanical systems) based spectrometer of the size of a sugar cube, fabricated at the clean room facilities of Fraunhofer IPMS, Dresden. This SGS (scanning grating spectrometer) is designed for integrated spectroscopic applications in the field of food quality analysis and food processing technology. Using another, larger, MEMS-based scanning grating spectrometer, we perform a series of test measurements of the absorption of different types of oil. Thereby, we demonstrate the suitability of this larger MEMS-based SGS for food quality analysis and establish a set of reference measurements. The optical parameters of the sugar cube-sized SGS are then evaluated against the requirements established in the above reference measurements. The spectral resolution of this device is still not sufficient for application in the near infrared, owing to the inaccuracy of one particular production step. Once these changes are in place, we are confident to achieve resolutions below 20 nm. In conclusion, we propose the miniaturised SGS as a mobile spectrometer for in-situ analysis integrated with a data processing system and input/output capabilities to a hardware or virtual host system.
Nabeel Ahmed (80 Every Street & University of Manchester, United Kingdom), Patricia J Scully (The University of Manchester, United Kingdom), Krikor Ozanyan (The University of Maqnchester, United Kingdom) and Christine Wilson (The University of Manchester, United Kingdom)
A physiological sensor enabling measurement of one of the vital signs (breathing rate) of a person without direct contact with the person is presented. Compared to current vital signs measuring devices we present a much simpler and less time consuming method of measuring vital signs with the potential for applications in hospitals and homes. A practical prototype sensor, based on polymer optical fibre (POF) sensor instrumentation was fabricated using Toray specific grade fibre exhibiting an increase in 30 % bending losses from the standard (FX 1000) commercial fibre. A 640 nm light-emitting diode was used to illuminate the fibre, with its sensitivity to bending increased by cutting transversal grooves along the fibre and then by applying plastic rods along the fibre to increase bending loss. Although both methods increased the bending loss of the fibre, grooving reduced POF durability and integrity, whereas use of the plastic rods enhanced bending losses without damaging the fibre. Signals from respiration as well as postural movements of a person lying on the POF sensor allow measurements to be taken in an unobtrusive manner. Bending losses attenuating light transmission through the fibre were related to displacement of POF during respiration (expansion and contraction of the chest cavity displace the surface in contact with the upper torso - in this case the meandering arrangement of the fibre sensor located on a TREDAIRE substrate). Bending losses were converted to voltage signals and captured by National Instruments hardware together with LabVIEW software. The sensor was found to be competent in evaluating respiration with a resolution of 100 µV and a sensitivity of 2.3 % change in light transmission for each breathing cycle of the person under study.
Arijit Chowdhury (Indian Institute of Science, India), Tapas Chakravarty (Tata Consultancy Services, India) and P. Balamuralidhar (Tata Consultancy Services, India)
In recent times, number of researchers have investigated vehicle tracking applications by fusing the measurements done by accelerometers, as part of inertial navigation system (INS), and GPS (Global Positioning System). However, the sensors in recreational devices like mobile phone have limitations in measurement accuracy and reliability. Usually, sudden changes in vehicle speed are not always captured well by GPS. Accelerometers, on the other hand, suffer from multiple noise sources. In this paper, we investigate the noise performance of accelerometers, available in a few smartphones. Then, we apply the noise analysis for the purpose of estimating the moving vehicle speed. A number of experiments were carried out to capture the vehicle's position & speed from OBD2, GPS as well as 3-axes accelerometer. We demonstrate a method by which the phone's orientation is compensated for while calculating speed from the measured acceleration. Further, a new method of INS/GPS fusion is proposed which enhances the accuracy of speed estimation. It is envisaged that with increasing estimation accuracy, the application of multi-sensor fusion in autonomous vehicles will be greatly enhanced
Cosimo Patruno (National Research Council (CNR), Italy), Roberto Marani (National Research Council (CNR), Italy), Massimiliano Nitti (Consiglio delle Ricerche - ISSIA, Italy), Tiziana D'Orazio (National Research Council, Italy) and Ettore Stella (Consiglio delle Ricerche - ISSIA, Italy)
In this paper a fast method based on laser triangulation for the estimation of the pose of a mobile robot is presented. The system is made of a camera and a laser source, placed on the front side of a robot, the Smoov ASRV, which is an autonomous vehicle able to carry, store and retrieve pallets in a smart warehouse constituted by metallic shelves. Therefore, the movements of the robot are constrained into allowed paths made of rails, arranged with several apertures that allow the robot change of direction. The processing of the acquired images is directly done on board by means of a low-cost single-board computer, namely the Raspberry Pi. This last is able to extract the information about the distance and the heading of the robot with respect to the rail boundary by analyzing the laser line lying in the camera plane; then, the extracted information expressed in the 3D reference system are sent via User Datagram Protocol to the control system of the vehicle. Results show how the information given by the proposed vision system are provided in a more efficient way with respect to the inductive sensors and the classic odometry, which fail when the robot crosses the structural rail apertures or its wheels suffer from unavoidable slippage.
Gergely Zachár (University of Pannonia, Hungary), Gyula Simon (University of Pannonia, Hungary) and Miklos Maroti (University of Szeged, Hungary)
This paper proposes a novel object tracking method using radio interferometry. The proposed low cost solution is able to track objects, equipped with a radio receiver, in real time, using only simple infrastructure nodes with radio transceivers at fixed and known locations. The localization method has low computational requirements and does not require any preliminary knowledge of, or measurements in the space where tracking is performed. The paper introduces the novel method and preliminary test results are also presented.
This paper proposes the Fictitious Reference Iterative
Tuning-Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO-FRIT) method to
design PID controllers for control systems. The properties of the
method is that this is an offline PID parameter tuning method
and it is not necessary to derive mathematical models of the
objected control systems The proposed method is demonstrated
in the numerical example.
Cristina Fratila (Coventry University, United Kingdom) and Andrew Tickle (Coventry University, United Kingdom)
Altimetry is defined as the method of measuring heights above sea level. Measuring height has been achieved by various methodologies in past, ranging from U-shaped columns of mercury or water, sealed pressurized balloons of air or more modern approaches such as the Global Positioning System (GPS). However, all these methods are either quite bulky or power hungry and so a low cost, light weight unit would be useful for various applications. Shown here is a small microprocessor controlled system that utilizes an air pressure sensor that can be calibrated to the current air pressure, run off a 6 Volt source and the height displayed on a LCD screen. This allows it to be used as a standalone module or integrated into a much larger system. This includes applications such as robotics and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) to personal handheld units for use in leisure activities or by security or rescue personnel.
Karen Duarte (University of Coimbra, Portugal) and José Cecílio (University of Coimbra / CISUC, Portugal)
Nowadays public buildings are changing constantly, often people have to take different routes to reach known destinations. At the same time, new services and places are made available to attract more people to the shopping centre This dynamic environment is usually signalled and labelled with visual marks and signs which are not appropriated for blind persons. Therefore, blind users are unintentionally deprived of a full participation in the society. With the purpose of equalize the access to services and spaces among all persons, this work proposes an indoor navigation and information system for a public building, namely a shopping center. Intending to allow a comfortable and helpful aid on blind persons' trips to the shopping center, this proposal system relies on user's smartphone and wireless sensors deployed in the environment.
Francisco Cary (Instituto Superior Técnico, Portugal), Octavian Adrian Postolache (Instituto de Telecomunicaçōes, Lisboa/IT & Instituto Universitario de Lisboa, ISCTE-IUL, Portugal) and Pedro M. B. Silva Girāo (Instituto Superior Técnico, Portugal)
This paper describes a framework focused on being a health monitoring platform as well as a source of entertainment for physiotherapy patients, particularly stroke survivors. Using the Microsoft Kinect sensor a serious game captures 3D data during the patient's session and sends it to a server. Through a web application these data can be further visualized by the physiotherapists on their assessments. Moreover, this framework intends to be a useful and effective tool for remote physiotherapy sessions allowing for a considerable cost reduction. Experimental results related to arms and shoulders rehabilitation are included in this paper.
Anindya Nag (Massey University, New Zealand) and Subhas Mukhopadhyay (Massey University, New Zealand)
A smart home has been designed and developed to monitor elderly people who lives alone and needs assistance to perform their daily living activities. The system monitors different activities of the elderly and determine the wellness of the person. It is a challenge to recognize different activities of the elderly over 24 hours for the seven days a week. The coverage issues in terms of monitoring the elderly are discussed in the paper.
Chia-Yen Lee (National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, Taiwan) and Lung-Ming Fu (National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, Taiwan)
In the study, a novel micro impedance inclinometer is presented, consisting of a glass substrate, Cr electrodes and a mercury pendulum. The output signal of the proposed inclinometer is read from the moving metal pendulum based on an LED array measurement scheme. A mercury pendulum mass is used for the inclinometer. The friction between the liquid metal and substrate surface is reduced by etching or sandblasting the substrate surface. Experimental results show the developed inclinometer has a high angle resolution (0.3o), a rapid time response (385 ms) and a high repeatability (R2 = 0.9988) with the A280# sandblasted substrate surface and the mercury pendulum of 360 μl. The developed inclinometer provide a simply yet high-performance solution for the inclination measurement.
Vinicius de Almeida (UNESP-Univ Estadual Paulista, Brazil) and Fabricio Baptista (UNESP- Univ Estadual Paulista, Brazil)
In this paper, we present an alternative method for assessing the sensitivity of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) piezoceramics for damage detection in structural health monitoring (SHM) systems based on the electromechanical impedance (EMI) principle. An assessment of the sensitivity is obtained experimentally using the pencil lead break (PLB) method, which is frequently used in acoustic emission (AE) systems. Tests were carried out on an aluminum beam, and the results show a clear relationship between the damage indices obtained from the electrical impedance signatures of the PZT patch bonded to the monitored structure and the power spectral density (PSD) obtained using the PLB method.
Yoshiki Kanno (Yokohama National Univerity, Japan) and Yasukazu Sato (Yokohama National University, Japan)
A linear and rotational two-degrees-of-freedom switched reluctance motor (2DOF-SRM) has been developed to independently control linear and rotational actuation on one actuator. The 2DOF-SRM drive system requires information on the linear and angular positions of the rotor for its control. The approximate angular position of the prototype 2DOF-SRM rotor was detected by the built-in photo-switches that utilize the salient pole of the rotor as the sensor target. The linear position of the rotor was detected by an external linear position sensor mechanically connected to the output shaft. To simplify this sensing system and improve sensing resolution, this paper presents a noncontact optical sensing method to simultaneously detect linear and angular positions of an actuating 2DOF-SRM rotor. The sensing principle for detecting the combined linear and rotational motion of the 2DOF-SRM and the performance of the linear and angular position sensing system are reported.
Adam Cassity (Coventry University, United Kingdom), Sam Soar (Coventry University, United Kingdom) and Andrew Tickle (Coventry University, United Kingdom)
Heavy Good Vehicles (HGVs) can cause several problems for road user's world-wide. One of the main issues found in the UK is that when one HGV is trying to overtake another on a motorway (freeway), the 56mph speed limit imposed means that the time to complete this task is substantial. This forces other road users to use the overtaking lane and causes a bottleneck, increasing road rage and the risk of accidents. Presented here is a proof-of-concept system that could theoretically allow a lighter loaded HGV to travel slightly faster and reduce the overtaking time, thus helping eliminate the bottleneck. The system uses a microcontroller that can be used to take odometer measurements from the driving wheels and weight sensors in the cargo area, to be able to alter the top speed achievable. In this situation a load cell is used to simulate the measured load on the lorry and a stepper motor and variable resistor to represent the engine and accelerator. How such a system could be implemented in a real-world environment is also discussed.
Khurram Shahzad (Mid Sweden University & Mid Sweden University, Sweden) and Bengt Oelmann (Mid Sweden University, Sweden)
In order to achieve the high-processing performance required in typical computationally intensive high-sample rate monitoring applications, a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) is often used as a hardware accelerator. Given the design complexity, increased power consumption and additional cost of an FPGA, it is desirable to determine the sampling rates for which the use of an FPGA as hardware accelerator results in most effective solution. For this purpose, a computationally intensive application is realized on an FPGA based architecture so as to determine the sampling rates for which it achieves the highest performance and consumes the least amount of energy as compared to that of a micro-controller based architecture. Based on the measured performance and energy consumption for a computationally intensive application, tri-axes/three-channel vibration based condition monitoring, the results suggest that the FPGA based architecture is the most appropriate solution for sampling frequencies of 4 kHz and above.
Hong Li (Jiangsu University of Science and Technology, P.R. China) and Qingfeng Wang (Jiangsu University of Science and Technology, P.R. China)
The propagation of ultrasonic guided waves in viscoelastic isotropic material has been investigated. Based on the plane theory, a numerical model of the guided waves propagating is developed in the frequency domain by employing the SFEM (spectral finite element method). To verify the proposed method, thin bitumen on the steel substrate is examined and compared with the single plate in terms of the dispersion and attenuation. From the dispersion and attenuation of the displacement curves, the propagating properties can be obtained, which depends not only on the viscous parameter, but also on those of the substrate. The guided wave attenuates rapidly at the location near the source, and with the receiver distance increasing, it becomes slowly, compared with single bitumen, the attenuation of amplitude for the guided waves propagating in the viscoelastic is tend to gently. The phenomenon shows propagation distance will increase in bilayer material cause of the substrate influence.
Jose Alberto Luna Lopez (BUAP & Science Institute, Mexico), Alfredo Benitez Lara (BUAP, Mexico), Godofredo Garcia (Salgado, Mexico), Alfredo Morales Sanchez (CIMAV, Mexico), Alfonso Perez Garcia (CIMAV, Mexico), David Hernandez de la Luz (BUAP, Mexico) and Mauricio Pacio (BUAP, Mexico)
Non-stoichiometric silicon oxide (SiOx) with embedded Si nanoparticles (Si-nps) shows novel physical characteristic, which permits its use in optoelectronic devices as photodetectors and light emitters. In this work, a detailed analysis of the structural and optical properties of silicon rich oxide films deposited via hot filament chemical vapor deposition is done. SiOx films with different Si content were obtained at different hydrogen flow. FTIR spectra show vibrational bands related to the presence of hydrogen in as-deposited SiOx films. This band is more intense as the hydrogen flow is increased, but disappears after thermal annealing. SiOx films exhibit a broad photoluminiscence (PL) spectra with main peaks at 700 and 750 nm. The PL band at 700 nm is enhanced as the hydrogen content in the SiOx films is increased. XPS spectra show a high Si concentration and a low oxygen concentration in the SiOx films. Transmittance spectra have a shifted to high wavelength after thermal annealing, and optical band gap was from 2.34 to 3.95 eV.
A fiber Bragg grating (FBG) accelerometer based on fiber vibrating wire is presented. Finite element analysis has been done and experiments are carried out to demonstrate the performance of this FBG accelerometer. The seismic simulation experimental results indicate that the system has a good response to the 50-400 Hz vibration signal. What more, the accelerometer has a high sensitivity which can reach 108.6 pm/G at 100Hz. The linear responsivity and repeatability are also tested. The responsivity error is less than 2.5% and repeatability error is less than 0.03%. There is an extremely linear relationship between amplitude of detected signal and acceleration.
Hui Ting Chan (Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Malaysia)
This paper presents the experiments and performance analysis of virtual fence unit consists of microwave motion detector and IEEE 802.15.4 wireless sensor network (WSN) for maximum sensing range. In particular, the analysis is focusing on the maximum sensing range in terms of azimuth angle, height, sensitivity level for indoor and outdoor implementation. The WSN platform is developed using Octopus II sensor nodes while the microwave motion detector is HB100 which detect movement using Doppler effect. Results show maximum sensing range of virtual fence unit is decreasing as azimuth angle increasing. With high sensitivity level of virtual fence unit, the maximum sensing range of virtual fence unit is larger than the maximum sensing range of virtual fence unit at normal sensitivity level. Results also show the virtual fence unit has higher maximum sensing range in indoor environment than outdoor environment.
Enobong Bassey (Auckland University of Technology & Geoinformatics Research Centre, New Zealand), Jacqueline Whalley (Auckland University of Technology, New Zealand), Philip John Sallis (Auckland University of Technology, NZ & Auckland University of Technology, NZ, New Zealand) and Krishnamachar Prasad (AUT University, New Zealand)
This paper reports on a series of experiments to evaluate the methods for feature extraction and denoising the digital signal from thin film zinc oxide-tin dioxide composite gas sensor devices. The aim was to find a method that not only cleaned the signal but also maintained the shape, precision and resolution of the signal. It was found that the Savitzky-Golay smoothing filter method gave the best, smoothed and cleaned, approximation of the sensor response regardless of the thin film composition, target gas concentration or operating temperature.
Stefania Bjarnadottir (Animalia, Norway), Alex Mason (Liverpool John Moores University, United Kingdom), Kathrine Lunde (Animalia, Norway) and Ole Alvseike (Animalia, Norway)
Microwave spectroscopy have been applied in numerous applications in the non-food industry, and recently also in the food industry, for non-destructive measurements. In this study, a dry-cured ham model was designed and water activity, water content and salt content (sodium chloride) were determined for all samples using chemical analysis. The water activity was also measured using microwave spectroscopy, with a rectangular microwave cavity resonator. Attained results indicate that microwave spectroscopy might be a promising technique for determination of water activity in dry-cured ham.
Kewang Wang (Nagoya University, Japan), Shingo Tajima (Nagoya University, Japan) and Tsuyoshi Uchiyama (Nagoya University, Japan)
We have previously reported a study on brain activity detection in occipital region using a picotesla-scale Magneto-Impedance (MI) sensor. Based on past studies, the target of the present study was to review the performance of MI sensor on parietal region brain activity detection. Human brain magnetic field is extremely weak, in order to detect the faint magnetic field, we constructed an MI measurement system that can cancel out the background noise (e.g., geomagnetic field) instead of using a magnetic shielding. In this study, we recorded P300 brain waves of subjects, compared our results with our past studies and other EEG and MEG data reported previously. The results confirmed the reliability of our data and indicated that the MI sensor can be applied on brain activity detection.
Walid Elgenaidi (University of Limerick, Ireland) and Thomas Newe (University of Limerick, Ireland)
Marine environmental monitoring based on wireless sensor networks (WSN) is a challenging area of research due to the instability of the water field. Due to the characteristics of the water environment, there are certain considerations which must be taken into account before the establishment of marine based wireless sensor networks. These include the deployment of wireless nodes (WNs), energy consumption, network connectivity and security. This paper compares and contrasts the basic parameters relating to WSNs, while highlighting the main components necessary to form an ideal marine based WSN system.
Salifu Osman (Liverpool John Moores University, United Kingdom) and Alex Mason (Liverpool John Moores University, United Kingdom)
Recently there has been an increasing interest in the classification of edible oils as an effective means to examine authenticity and to detect possible adulteration of virgin olive oils with seed oils or low-quality olive oils. Classical methods based on gas chromatography (GC) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) are too expensive for widespread industrial use and require samples to be analysed in dedicated laboratories thus incurring a significant time penalty. This paper demonstrates that microwave spectrometry is able to offer real-time measurement of oils adequate for determining product authenticity. It does this by evaluating a bespoke sensor system which is used to measure the dielectric properties common-place edible oils. In particular, the capability of the system to distinguish between these oils, even when mixed, is demonstrated. This is important as it is a common technique used by fraudsters in the production of counterfeit oils.
Hemavathi Natarajan (National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli, India) and Selvaraj Sudha (National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli, India)
Clustering, an energy efficient approach is used in Wireless Sensor Network. Clustering involves cluster formation and Cluster Head Selection. As the Cluster Head is involved in carrying out the entire communication, a high energy node has to be selected as Cluster Head. In this paper, a novel predictive Fuzzy based Cluster Head selection algorithm is proposed. The proposal suggests a new input parameter, Rate of recurrent Communication apart from the standard parameters namely the Residual Power of Sensor Nodes, Degree of Neighboring Nodes, Distance between the Node and Base Station, Sensor Node Movement. In this approach, the fuzzy logic evaluates the Cluster Head Selection Probability which is based on the node's previous communication history to decide the Cluster Head. The proposed algorithm is implemented using Matlab. The simulation results show that the proposed Cluster Head Selection technique is superior to other proposals.
Eric Ebert (University Rostock & Universität Rostock, Germany), Nils Damaschke (University of Rostock, Germany), Willfried Kroeger (Universität Rostock, Germany) and Kay Domke (University Rostock, Germany)
Interferometric Particle Imaging (IPI) is depicted and modifications to make it suitable for measurements in harsh environments are presented. Wake flow measurements behind a ferry ship in the project KonKav (determination of scale effects between ship models and the full scale in terms of cavitation prediction) are exemplary investigated. Particle characterizations in terms of bubble size and concentration and particle type classifications are presented for determination of water quality in the propeller inflow.
Krzysztof Krogulski (Warsaw University of Technology, Poland), Mateusz Smietana (Warsaw University of Technology, Poland), Magdalena Szymałska (Motor Transport Institute, Poland), Bartosz Michalak (Warsaw University of Technology, Poland), Anna Dębowska (Warsaw University of Technology, Poland), Łukasz Wachnicki (Polish Academy of Science, Poland), Sylwia Gierałtowska (Polish Academy of Science, Poland), Marek Godlewski (Polish Academy of Science, Poland), Predrag Mikulic (Université du Québec en Outaouais, Canada) and Wojtek J. Bock (Université du Québec en Outaouais, Canada)
In this paper we discuss an effect of coating long-period gratings (LPGs) with a thin titanium dioxide (TiO2) overlays on refractive index (RI) sensitivity of the LPG. The overlays were obtained using atomic layer deposition (ALD) method. The method allows for deposition well-controlled in thickness, well defined in optical properties, high-RI and very conformal thin films as required for optical fiber sensors. For the investigated LPGs we obtained sensitivity of 3490 to 6471 nm per RI unit depending on range RI.
Wagah Mohammed (Pheladelphia University, Jordan) and Munther Al-Tikriti (Philadelpia University, Jordan)
this research aims to study and discuss the theoretical models and simulation of optoelectronic properties of a-Si-H PIN Photosensors using Shockley-Read-Hall assumptions. The variation of carrier life time, recombination and generation rates as a function of the intrinsic layer (i-layer) thickness will be simulated using MATLAB program. The effects of intrinsic layer thickness on electrons concentration, holes concentration, collection efficiency and short circuit current density have been studied and analyzed. It has been found that as the thickness increased, the parameters: recombination rate, generation rate, internal electric field, electrons and holes concentration, carriers' life times, and short circuit current density, were subjected to some variations.
We developed a focal positioning system for laser sensing instruments. The positioning system consists of x- and y-axis galvano mirrors and a high-speed response tunable lens. It allows for quick adjustment of the measuring position with high resolution and repeatability afforded by the galvano mirrors, which enable the plotting of 10,000 focal points per second, and the tunable lens, which allows adjustment of the focal length within 2.5 ms (10%-90% step). For laser measurements, the location information of the laser spot on the sample is the key parameter to determine the quantitative difference in chemical compositions at different locations. Furthermore, if the sample changes location systematically with some temporal variation, quick correction before changing the default position is required to prevent missing the target. The laser spot positioning system we present here can play an important role in obtaining multi-plot measurements for complicated surface topologies and dynamic micro-samples.
Ryuichi Yoshida (Tokyo University of Science, Japan), Tomohiro Nakayama (Tokyo University of Science, Japan), Takeki Ogitsu (Tokyo University of Science, Japan), Hiroshi Takemura (Noda Tus, Japan), Hiroshi Mizoguchi (Tokyo University of Science, Japan), Etsuji Yamaguchi (Kobe University, Japan), Shigenori Inagaki (Kobe University, Japan), Yoshiaki Takeda (Kobe University, Japan), Miki Namatame (Tsukuba University of Technology, Japan), Masanori Sugimoto (Hokkaido University, Japan) and Fusako Kusunoki (Tama Art University, Japan)
Electrodermal Activity (EDA) refers to change in the electrical properties of skin during mental exertion caused by tension and agitation. In recent studies, it has been revealed that there is an overlap between the brain activation area where emotion occurs and the brain activation area responsible for attentiveness. Consequently, in this paper we test our hypothesis that, given these findings, visual attention can be estimated via EDA. The results of experiments conducted verify that EDA can be used as an attention index.
Fabio Martino (National Research Council, Italy), Cosimo Patruno (National Research Council (CNR), Italy), Roberto Marani (National Research Council (CNR), Italy) and Ettore Stella (Consiglio delle Ricerche - ISSIA, Italy)
In this paper a method based on the well-known frame theory is presented for the identification and classification of objects inside a scene. Three-dimensional (3D) point clouds have been firstly acquired using a laser triangulation system exploiting a high resolution camera, in order to derive accurate datasets for the method validation. The method performs a quadratic fit on the acquired samples and then extracts local curvatures from the analytical reconstructed surfaces. Such information is referred to a vocabulary of curvatures, created making use of the frame basis. Meaningful signatures can be finally analyzed to derive the recurrences of objects in the investigated scene. Specifically, by fixing a threshold value ζ, similarities can be estimated and thus objects can be recognized. Results prove the capability of the method to distinguish surface properties among several objects, validating this algorithm against the contributions of the measurement noise.
Stanislav Pikula (Brno University of Technology & The Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Communication, Czech Republic) and Petr Beneš (Brno University of Technology & FEEC, Czech Republic)
This article presents a new method focused on interferences reduction in Wigner-Ville distribution. The algorithm is based on multiple Smoothed Pseudo Wigner-Ville distributions: differently smoothed time-frequency planes are compared and for every point a cross-term free value is calculated on the basis of optimal smooth estimation. Proposed approach is compared with Gabor-Wigner transform, Zhao-Atlas-Marks distribution and Choi-Wiliams distribution. Five time-frequency Gaussian atoms and bat echo-location chirp are used as testing signals. Rényi entropy, Ration of Norms, Stanković measure and Mean Square Error are used as quantitative measures to demonstrate promising results of proposed method.
Patryk Kot (Liverpool John Moores University, United Kingdom), Andrew Shaw (University of Liverpool, United Kingdom), Karl O. Jones (Liverpool John Moores University, United Kingdom), Jeff Cullen (Liverpool John Moores University, United Kingdom), Alex Mason (Liverpool John Moores University, United Kingdom) and Ahmed I Al-Shamma'a (Liverpool John Moores University, United Kingdom)
In this paper, one part of an experimental methodology for the feasibility of using electromagnetic waves in determining the moisture content of building fabrics and the case of the water ingress is presented, and the preliminary experiment is demonstrated. This paper will concentrate on investigating the propagation of EM waves through typical structures and their interaction with concealed pipework, wiring and timber. All current methods are overviewed and analysed. Microwave sensor described in this paper operates on 6GHz to 12GHz frequency range and using Marconi 6200A microwave test set. Results of experimental test confirm that microwave can be used as method for identifying different object behind the walls.
Ian G Platt (Lincoln Agritech Ltd, New Zealand), Phil Herrington (Opus Research, New Zealand), Shaun Cook (Opus Research, New Zealand), Ian M Woodhead (Lincoln, New Zealand), Adrian Tan (Lincoln Agritech Limited & Lincoln University, New Zealand), Sean Richards (Lincoln Agritech Limited, New Zealand) and Michael Hagedorn (LVL, New Zealand)
This paper describes an empirical transform between the propagation time (tp) data obtained from a non invasive Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR) sensor to the percentage moisture content v within two different road making basecourse aggregate material. Results show that a simple quadratic fit between tp and ?v can be given leading to a maximum error in the estimate of 0.55%. It is also shown that the dielectric model underlying each of the basecourses is different enough to warrant the use of a unique quadratic function (i.e. different quadratic coefficients) for each.
Mirjana Bogosanovic (Unitec Institute of Technology, New Zealand) and Grant Emms (SCION, New Zealand)
This paper presents a novel approach to microwave non-contact, non-destructive testing of wood, investigating additional indicators of wood structure, in particular the significance of wave polarization in transmission measurements. Contribution of wave polarization to wood characterization is studied, considering detection of rapid and gradual variations in wood structure, determination of moisture content and density distribution along the sample, as well as bulk properties detection. A set of microwave sensors in collinear arrangement was used in two orthogonal linear polarizations. Significant findings are reported, in particular polarization dependence of moisture related attenuation, as well as improved defect detection accuracy when measurements in two orthogonal linear polarizations are considered. In addition, sorting wood samples into categories is considered and the advantages of this approach are presented.
Andreas Fritz (Carinthian Tech Research AG, Austria) and Thomas Arnold (Carinthian Tech Research AG & University of Klagenfurt, Austria)
A non-destructive, non-contact inspection system for packaged integrated circuits using terahertz (THz) radiation is tested. Our results show that we are able to reconstruct the internal structure of the IC, like the microelectronic chip and the interconnections. Due to the limitation of the system and the wavelength of THz radiation the fine bonding wires could not be detected. However, we show that the THz technology will be a valuable tool for the automatic online inspection of packaged integrated circuits.
Arcady Zhukov (Basque Country University, UPV/EHU & Ikerbasque, Science Foundation, Spain), Ahmed Talaat (Basque Country University, UPV/EHU, Spain), Mihail Ipatov (Basque Country University, UPV/EHU, Spain) and Valentina Zhukova (Basque Country University, UPV/EHU, Spain)
We studied the Giant magnetoimpedance (GMI) effect and magnetic properties of amorphous Fe-Co rich magnetic microwires prepared by the Taylor-Ulitovski technique. We observed that these properties can be tailored either controlling magnetoelastic anisotropy of as-prepared Co-rich microwires or controlling their magnetic anisotropy by heat treatment. High GMI effect even at GHz frequencies has been observed in Co-rich microwires.
Alexander Chizhik (University of Basque Country, UPV/EHU, Spain), Andrzej Stupakiewicz (University of Bialystok, Poland), Andrzej Maziewski (University of Bialystok, Poland), Julian Gonzalez (University of Basque Country, UPV/EHU, Spain) and Arcady Zhukov (Basque Country University, UPV/EHU & Ikerbasque, Science Foundation, Spain)
The work is dedicated to the magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE) study of the magnetization reversal in the microwire in the presence of super high frequency (SHF) circular magnetic field. This study is important for elucidation of functioning of sensor based on giant magneto-impedance (GMI) effect. Magnetic domains images have been obtained using MOKE polarizing microscopy. Hysteresis loops were obtained as a result of images processing. It was found that SHF magnetic field induces strong change of the mechanism of magnetization reversal.
Ahmad Patooghy (Iran University of Science & Technology, Tehran, Iran), Meisam Kamarei (Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), Tehran, Iran), Ali Farajzadeh (Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), Tehran, Iran), Fatemeh Tavakoli (Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), Tehran, Iran), Mehdi Saeidmanesh (Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), Tehran, Iran)
Decrease in the time interval between the first node death and the last node death, due to the completion of their energy supply, is the main goal of load-balancing methods in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN). This paper proposes a Load-Balancing Enhancement (LBE) method, in WSN. LBE method uses a mobile data collector to data gathering from sensor nodes. The mobile data collector can directly communicate with the base station. Indeed, the mobile data collector acts as an interface between sensor nodes and the base station. LBE method divides WSN to four logical partitions. Then, LBE method directs the mobile data collector to the center of each logical partition of the network with considering the density and the mean residual energy of the desired partition, i.e., the more the partition density and the mean residual energy, the more the obtaining chance of the desired partition. Simulation results that have been implemented with NS-2 software show LBE method achieves load-balancing in energy consumption for all logical partitions. LBE method also balances logical partitions density and it increases the network coverage efficiency